Brazil: Suspensão de tabela de frete coloca pressão sobre STF, dizem advogados

Last Updated: 29 July 2019
Article by Veirano E Advogados Associados
Most Read Contributor in Brazil, August 2019

A decisão do governo de suspender a revisão da tabela do frete publicada na última quinta-feira (18) aumenta a expectativa das empresas por um julgamento do STF (Supremo Tribunal Federal) sobre a constitucionalidade do mecanismo de fixação de preços. 

O ministério da Infraestrutura disse nesta segunda-feira (22) que iria solicitar a suspensão da tabela publicada na semana passada, feita a partir de estudos da Esalq-Log, da Universidade de São Paulo. 

A mudança foi informada anteriormente em áudios de WhatsApp do ministro Tarcísio de Freitas para lideranças dos caminhoneiros, que ameaçavam uma greve por considerarem os valores pagos a eles, menores do que os da tabela anterior, insatisfatórios. 

O tabelamento do frete foi criado pelo governo Michel Temer (MDB) em Medida Provisória que tinha justamente o objetivo de arrefecer uma longa paralisação de caminhoneiros, ocorrida em maio de 2018. 

Sancionada pelo Congresso, a tabela teve sua constitucionalidade questionada em ações movidas pelas confederações da indústria e da agricultura. 

Entre os especialistas, há tanto os que apontam fraqueza do governo ao ceder às pressões dos caminhoneiros como também os que apontam que a ação de suspender a nova tabela foi adequada, dado o risco iminente de uma greve com graves repercussões na economia. 

O advogado Aurélio Marchini, do Marchini Botelho Caselta Advogados, que diz considerar a tabela inconstitucional por limitar a concorrência, afirma que a decisão desta segunda indica que o governo teria demonstrado que faltam instrumentos ou interesse para tratar da questão. 

"A decisão de suspender a tabela gera a preocupação de que, em vez de o governo estar tentando criar uma discussão razoável, está cedendo mais uma vez e colocando mais pressão sobre o Supremo Tribunal Federal, que deve decidir sobre o tema em setembro." 

Para o advogado, a expectativa do setor empresarial era que, no momento de tomada de decisão pelo tribunal, o cenário seria mais favorável. 

"A expectativa era de que o assunto chegasse lá em outros termos, com a economia se recuperando e o governo colocando em práticas outras formas de tratar do setor, de aumentar sua competitividade." 

Diogo Siuffo, sócio do Bichara Advogados, diz acreditar que a decisão desta segunda indica que o governo estaria perdido em relação ao assunto. 

"A nova tabela [que deve ser suspensa] é resultado de um trabalho técnico, com a participação de todos os envolvidos, enquanto a anterior foi feita em poucos dias. Isso[o provável retorno para a tabela anterior] demonstra cenário de desarticulação do governo e seu enfraquecimento para negociações futuras." 

Segundo ele, ao abrir mão da mudança na tabela, o governo está transferindo a responsabilidade por tomar iniciativa em relação ao assunto ao Supremo. 

Siuffo diz que a indefinição leva empresas a buscarem alternativas ao transporte de cargas com autônomos, em especial a contratação de frota própria ou de transportadoras. 

Fábio Alem, sócio do escritório Veirano, discorda que a suspensão denote fraqueza do governo. Ele diz considerar que a suspensão da tabela abre espaço para uma nova negociação sobre o tema, na qual o governo buscará uma solução em que haverá menos peso do intervencionismo do Estado na economia. 

Ele diz acreditar que a orientação do governo atual pró-mercado deverá pesar no julgamento do STF. 

"O STF está ligado ao judiciário, mas leva muito em conta a questão política. haverá pressão dos caminhoneiros sobre o governo e pressão do governo sobre o STF, mas deve prevalecer a influência do ministro da Economia", afirma.  

O advogado Carlos Roberto Siqueira Castro, sócio do escritório Siqueira Castro, diz avaliar a suspensão da tabela como uma trégua entre governo e caminhoneiros, o que seria a melhor opção para evitar uma greve e todos os prejuízos que ela acarreta. 

"Ganhou-se tempo. A inflexibilidade, a intolerância conspira contra uma solução negociada", diz. 

Por outro lado, O advogado lembra que, mesmo que se chegue a uma solução alternativa à tabela, o julgamento no STF é mantido, pois as ações que discutem um tema constitucional, uma vez movidas, não podem ser retiradas. 

"A CNA (Confederação da Agricultura e Pecuária do Brasil) disse em nota que reitera ser contra o tabelamento obrigatório do frete e entende que os acontecimentos recentes reforçam a necessidade de uma decisão urgente do STF sobre o tema". 

Em nota, Paulo Skaf, presidente da Fiesp (federação das indústrias paulistas) afirmou que a organização é contra o tabelamento de qualquer tipo de preço. 

Segundo ele, a federação luta na Justiça para que o tabelamento do frete não tenha efeito e aguardam posicionamento do Supremo Tribunal Federal sobre este tema.

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