Brazil: MP flexibiliza contrato de uso da terra e traz risco de judicialização no campo

Last Updated: 14 August 2019
Article by Veirano E Advogados Associados
Most Read Contributor in Brazil, August 2019

Uma emenda inserida pela Câmara dos Deputados na medida provisória da Liberdade Econômica flexibiliza as regras para contratos envolvendo o uso da terra. 

Apesar de a revisão dessas normas, previstas no Estatuto da Terra, ser um antigo pleito, a proposta tem gerado intensa discussão entre especialistas do direito agrário, que veem na mudança, na forma como foi apresentada, alto potencial para elevar o risco jurídico no campo. 

No artigo 34, a medida provisória define que, nos contratos de arrendamento ou parceria, passa a valer a autonomia das partes para fixar os parâmetros do acordo. 

Atualmente, esses parâmetros contratuais são definidos pelo Estatuto da Terra, lançado em 1964. Entre as proteções asseguradas estão garantia de prazos mínimos de permanência, de ao menos três anos, preferência na renovação de contrato e indicadores para definição de preços que devem ser praticados no arrendamento. Também prevê a possibilidade de estender a permanência até o fim de uma colheita, afirma o advogado Alexandre Matias, sócio da Advocacia Maciel. 

A livre negociação entre as partes aboliria todo o regramento tradicional. Ela só não valeria para contratos firmados com agricultor familiar. Nesse caso, prevaleceria o Estatuto da Terra. 

O relator da MP na Câmara dos Deputados, Jerônimo Goergen (PP-RS), diz que o objetivo da mudança na lei é adequar os contratos a uma atividade que vem se tornando progressivamente mais moderna e dinâmica. 

"Queremos atualizar os contratos agrícolas para uma nova realidade, por isso estamos propondo o debate, sabendo que não há uma unanimidade", diz o deputado. 

A advogada Rossana Duarte, sócia da área de negócios imobiliários do Mattos Filho, diz ver como positiva a mudança proposta na MP, por retirar o engessamento que há nos contratos —medida que teria poder de incentivar novas alternativas de produção, com impactos positivos na economia. 

"Muitas vezes, por exemplo, o produtor quer fazer um contrato mais curto, mas não pode, porque a lei não permite", afirma Duarte. 

Jeferson Rocha, produtor e diretor jurídico da Andaterra (Associação Nacional de Defesa dos Agricultores, Pecuaristas e Produtores da Terra), também diz avaliar que a ideia de flexibilizar e desburocratizar contratos é positiva, mas precisa ser debatida com profundidade e no detalhe, pois tem grande impacto no campo por causa do volume de terras arrendadas. 

Ele estima que, de sua associação, com 4.000 filiados, metade produza via contratos de arrendamento. 

A falta de discussão, afirma a advogada Simone Paschoal Nogueira, sócia do Siqueira Castro, acabou por atrair mais insatisfação do que apoio para a proposta. 

Segundo ela, a mudança na regra atual, ainda que necessária, não pode ocorrer de maneira genérica, pois pode distorcer o mercado de terras e levar a diferentes tipos de judicialização. 

Um dos problemas, segundo a advogada, é que, ao manter regras mais rígidas nos contratos apenas para o pequeno produtor rural, haverá um desincentivo para que sejam firmados contratos com ele. 

Outra questão, avalia Raphael Moreira, sócio do Veirano, é que a nova norma poderia sim ser questionada por questões técnicas, já que, na redação da MP, as regras do Estatuto da Terra não são revogadas. 

"Falar que prevalece a autonomia das partes significa, na prática, revogar todos os incisos anteriores que tratam do tema no estatuto. Mas isso resultaria em conflito de normas, que abriria espaço para a discussão jurídica, pois você está falando duas coisas diferentes no mesmo artigo." 

Francisco de Godoy Bueno, vice-presidente da SRB (Sociedade Rural Brasileira), diz que o debate precisa evoluir para acompanhar a realidade do agronegócio. 

Ele destaca que os contratos de arrendamento são mais frequentes em culturas nas quais há maior especialização. Crescem, principalmente, no cultivo de soja, milho e cana-de-açúcar. 

Bueno diz ser necessária a atualização da lei, pois a regra atual foi pensada para o cenário dos anos de 1960, quando o setor ainda não tinha os grande produtores de hoje, que atuam em escala, dentro de uma estrutura empresarial robusta e, não raro, globalizada.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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