Worldwide: 东西半球最大发展中国家牵手,将在能源行业擦出怎样的火花?

Last Updated: 19 September 2019
Article by Wendy Wu

中国企业在巴西能源行业的运营指南

2019年8月22日,庆祝中国-巴西建交45周年招待会22日在北京举行。中巴建交以来,双边贸易额从最初的千万美元到如今突破了千亿美元大关,双边投资持续增长。中国投资者在巴西能源、交通、基础设施等领域看到了十足的潜力,投资增长势头尤为显著。根据2019年巴西经济部发布的《巴西外国投资公报》显示,中国已成为巴西最大投资国。

中国企业钟爱巴西不无道理。被誉为"被上帝吻过的国度"的巴西是西半球最大的发展中国家,拥有丰富的水、森林、矿产、土地、石油等自然资源。除此之外,巴西在可再生能源方面也有着天然优势——密布的河网和巨大的地势差给水力发电提供了可资利用的潜在势能,巴西全国3/4的电量供应由水电支撑。在"生物燃料革命"引领下,巴西探索出一条能源替代道路。2017年,巴西生物燃料产量占全球五分之一以上,在当前以化石能源为主的世界能源供应格局中,保持可再生能源消费第一大国地位。

"驾马车 "齐驱并驾,昔日贫油国尽显生态之

巴西的能源版图在深海石油、水力发电和生物燃料"三驾马车"的引领下不断丰富和完善。

巴西曾是世界上的贫油国。2007年底以来,巴西在沿海陆续发现多个特大盐下油气田,一举摘掉贫油国的帽子,跃升为南美第一大石油生产国。根据石油输出国组织(欧佩克)数据显示,巴西的石油天然气探明储量预计在未来几年将翻3番,到2020年时料额外增加550亿桶。2016年,中石油、中海油标得深海油田皇冠上的"明珠"——巴西里贝拉(LIBRA)油田,油气总储量约在260至420亿桶之间,相当于巴西全国已探明原油总储量的80%,开采潜力巨大。

除了拥有大量的传统化石能源资源,巴西算得上是老牌清洁能源国家。目前,巴西是全球第四大可再生能源生产国,41%的可再生能源占比远超世界13%的平均水平。其中,水电占能源总量的12.5%,巴西已成为全球水电比重最高的国家之一。目前,国家电网、国家电投、葛洲坝、中国电建、三峡公司和国家核电、东方电气等多家企业已参与到巴西水电基础设施建设当中。在生物燃料方面,巴西是世界第二大生物燃料生产国和消费国,乙醇汽车数量一度占全国汽车总量90%以上,生物柴油事业也在巴西发展得如火如荼,能源事业尽显"生态"之光。

"带一路 "延伸至巴西,中巴能源合作将 实现双

巴西是首个与中国建立战略伙伴关系的发展中国家,也是首个与中国建立全面战略伙伴关系的拉美国家。2019年5月,巴西副总统莫朗访华时高度评价"一带一路"倡议发挥的重要作用,并强调希望将巴西的"投资伙伴计划"与"一带一路"对接,并深化经贸投资、金融、基础设施、能源、矿产、农牧业等重点领域和项目的合作。

在传统能源领域,巴西石油天然气储量丰富,但巴西国内需求远远小于开采量。近年来,巴西在中国的能源供给中,地位稳步提升,2015年中国已超越美国成为巴西石油的最大买家。此外,巴西90%的油气资源都在深海,中国能源企业可以利用在中下游产业链上的优势,与巴西上游领域深海勘探能力相结合,实现双赢。

在新能源领域,巴西在生物燃料方面取得的巨大成就,可为中国发展生物质能源丰富能源多样性、推动农村能源革命带来新的思考,中资企业在此有广泛的投资机会与合作空间。此外,巴西作为光伏发电、风电、核电等新兴市场,也为我国相关产业企业"走出去"提供了广阔的发挥空间。2018年,比亚迪成功签约巴西首个锂电池集装箱式储能项目,将配合光伏电站接入当地配电网络;中国广核集团也通过一系列风电、太阳能等项目投资,将成为巴西第五大清洁能源发电商。推动新能源发展符合中巴两国能源发展目标和共同利益。

能源项目大多庞大复杂,这也为中国的技术公司、工程公司、贸易公司、金融机构等企业参与巴西能源行业发展的机会,将更多中国元素融入巴西。中巴两国在能源资源、能源技术等方面互补互利,能源合作前景一片光明。

巴西营商环境复杂度全球第三,企业运营挑战不容小

尽管巴西能源行业的发展前景对中国企业充满吸引力,但企业想要进入巴西市场运营也绝非易事。根据TMF Group 发布的2019年《 全球商业复杂性指数》,巴西在全球76个司法管辖区内排名第三,很大程度上因为该国设定许多保护本地商业和劳动力的条例和法规,导致中国企业在巴西成立运营面临巨大挑战。

就公司设立而言,在巴西成立新公司要向当局注册,承担较大的行政成本,整个过程通常需要60至90天,开设银行户口的时间另计。就税务环境而言,巴西中央、州和市三个层级共征收超过90种税款。在劳动力方面,强制执行的十三薪政策、维护与力量强大的工会关系,都提高了中资企业在巴西的运营成本。此外,政府办事效率低、材料本地化程度高、严苛的环保标准都增加了中国企业在巴西经营的难度。

TMF Group利用丰富的本地化 经验,与中企携手应对营商环境挑

针对巴西复杂的商业环境,TMF Group建议意欲在巴西能源行业施展拳脚中国企业,在投资前要做好尽职调查,以合规为企业发展的生命线,遵守当地法律法规和文化。TMF Group巴西专家Rodrigo Zambon表示:"在巴西开展业务的最佳方式,就是要'积累经验'。有些经验要通过反复摸索和试验才能获得。"

TMF Group是领先的全球高价值商业服务提供商和国际拓展专家。我们在巴西具备丰富的经验,能快速为中国企业提供支持,将设立新公司的时间缩短到12至15天,让企业及时把握市场机遇。公司成立以后,TMF Group还可提供 业秘书 人力资源与薪酬管理 计和税务管理等一站式服务。同时提供专家对接,提高交流的便利性,进而协助客户提高效率,专注核心业务发展。TMF Group在全球80多个司法管辖区有7,800多名本地专家能为中国企业在海外拓展提供支持。客户只需与TMF Group一家合作伙伴联络,即可利用其全球化布局协同处理多个地区的事务,大幅降低沟通和管理成本,同时实现全球化业务管理操作模式。

中国和巴西建交45周年,同为金砖国家,两国合作的第二个"黄金十年"也将开启新的篇章。随着"一带一路"倡议深入推进,中巴经贸合作面临着难得的历史机遇和条件。目前,有200多家中资企业在巴西开展业务,在两国关系平稳健康发展的过程中,将共同拓展合作交流平台、发掘更多合作潜力。

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Events from this Firm
3 Oct 2019, Webinar, Rotterdam, Netherlands

To view this Webinar in full click here

24 Oct 2019, Business Breakfast, London, UK

Join TMF Group and ACCA for breakfast and a briefing session dedicated to the latest VAT changes and how they affect the UK.

21 Nov 2019, Conference, Shanghai, China

Retail remains a significant growth opportunity even as GDP slows, but the challenge of recruiting and retaining quality staff must never be underestimated and managing these issues successfully can define the winners and losers. TMF Group’s 2019 Annual Retail Summit in Shanghai brings together industry professionals to share opinions on the key differentiators that can lead to achieving growth targets and maintaining momentum for your retail business in China.

 
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