Canada: 在加拿大经商:您应该知道的事情

Last Updated: February 12 2019
Article by Gary Hokkanen

加拿大与美国之间不稳定的关系,令加拿大明朗的经济蒙上一层阴影。不过,加拿大经济对美国的依赖,并不能因此被夸张化。

此文最初乃刊载于GlobalTradeMag.com。

美国是加拿大商品的最大买家,同时也是加拿大进口的最大供应商。去年,特朗普向国会表明,有意与加拿大和墨西哥重新谈判北美自由贸易合约(NAFTA)。此举让加拿大不禁"打了个冷颤"。

NAFTA的未来充满不稳定因素,导致有兴趣在加拿大投资的投资者感到担忧。一些外国企业把加拿大当成进军美国的跳板。

重新谈判的其中一个关键是美国坚持要加拿大接受五年谈判一次的条款。这条款看似是不合常理的。如果条例会在五年内变得完全不同,企业并不会想要投资。

上述贸易纠纷是个遗憾,因为这扰乱了加拿大政府为了吸引投资和加速经济与就业增长所付出的努力。

去年,加拿大政府成立了一家基建银行,利用政府的财力帮助私人投资,为大型基建项目融资,如公共交通。加拿大共投入了350亿美元,冀望可以借此吸引四至五倍的私人资金来源,包括退休金。

成立银行的法规强制要求基建银行的项目必须产生收入且以公众利益为主,如收费大道、市政供水和污水处理系统。政府瞄准三个投资区域,分别是:公共交通、贸易与运输以及绿色基建。

该银行是政府广大的计划之一,投资了近1000亿美元在加拿大逐步老化的基建上。这对于工程和建筑企业而言,无疑非常诱人。

加拿大凭着世界最友善的经商环境之一而闻名。在加拿大经商的好处包括:

教育程度高的劳动力:根据世界经济论坛,加拿大在建立和借助于人力资源潜能方面排名全球第四。

创业的容易度:加拿大是全世界排名第二的最佳创业地点

稳健的银行体系:金融领域秉持保守借贷实践的传统,且资本雄厚。若要进一步深入了解加拿大,您可以参阅免费的国家概况

尽管如此,加拿大政府并没有将这亲善的文化视为理所当然,反之通过成立五个创新领域与研究集群项目,让其可以在21世纪的全球经济中竞争。在这项目下,大、小型的企业将与研究机构和非政府机构携手合作,取得科技的进步并推动经济增长。在未来的五年,政府也会提供最多9.5亿美元给这五个创新集群项目,并且会配对企业财团。经过全国筛选,政府决定专注于先进制造、数字科技、植物蛋白、人工智能与机械、以及以海洋为主的工业,如渔业和油气业。

这个概念主要是创造出一个集中研究和发展的区域,犹如加利福尼亚的硅谷,以迎接更多新企业的成立并创造就业机会。在雄心勃勃的时代下,这是一个具有抱负的项目,因全球各国都在争取人才及投资。

与美国之间的自由贸易提升了加拿大的竞争力。加拿大是在1987年开始签署双边协议,并在七年后签署了NAFTA。NAFTA加强了美国与加拿大之间的贸易和经济一体化。目前,美国是加拿大最大的贸易伙伴。其中,美国在加拿大的直接投资,从1993年的700亿美元,增加至2016年的3639亿美元。

然而,随着特朗普在5月杪对加拿大的钢、铁产品分别征收25%和10%的关税,令市场更担忧NAFTA的"命运"。作为回击,加拿大也设下了本身的关税列表,瞄准美国进口总值166亿美元的钢铁、铝及其他产品。

此贸易战正对进行中的NAFTA洽谈带来压力。如果NAFTA被终止,加拿大的经济无疑会受到冲击。这影响是很难预测的,因为没有人知道取代NAFTA的会是什么关税机制。但可以预知的是汽车及其它对贸易敏感的领域将受到影响。

在这里,我们希望冷静的头脑最后会占上风。

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