China: 境外投资劳工法实务概要系列——西班牙

Last Updated: 27 March 2019
Article by Jia Hui
Most Read Contributor in China, September 2019

2018年西班牙当地时间11月28日,国家主席习近平访问了西班牙并在马德里出席西班牙国王费利佩六世举行的隆重、盛大的欢迎仪式。两国政府发表联合声明,一致同意推动两国关系得到新的更大发展。位于欧洲大陆西端的西班牙,处于丝绸之路经济带和21世纪海上丝绸之路交汇之地,是中国共建"一带一路"的天然合作伙伴。笔者也曾经代表客户参与收购西班牙企业,亲自感受到西班牙环境优美、法制健全的投资环境。仅2016年中国在西班牙的投资总额就达到18亿美元[1]。中国企业所投资的行业从贸易、渔业等传统领域延展到金融、电信、新能源、不动产和旅游等新领域,西班牙成为中国企业新的投资热点之一[2]。本文以笔者所在团队从事相关跨境劳动法业务及投资、争议解决法律服务的经验为基础,通过与中国劳动法相比较,对西班牙劳工法制实务中需要作为雇主的中国公司关注的特点及风险要点进行了编辑和梳理。

一、劳动合同制度

在笔者曾参与的一笔西班牙并购交易中,经过尽职调查发现标的企业的员工存在需要重新谈判和签署劳动合同的问题。在西班牙,应注意劳动合同有多种,主要包括不定期合同、定期合同、临时用工合同、培训合同、远距离工作合同和兼职合同等。西班牙法律规定了定期或临时用工合同的具体适用条件。所有临时用工合同都必须采用书面形式并详细载明临时性的原因;否则,如果订立临时合同的依据不符合法定范围,则视为不定期合同,相当于中国劳动法中的无固定期限劳动合同,将加重雇主风险。

临时用工合同主要用于特定项目工作、企业临时需要、青年首次就业、岗位替代等目的。培训合同用于高校毕业生、实习生和学徒。兼职合同是指员工每日、每周、每月或每年的工作时数少于"类似全职员工"(即相同或相近岗位)的工作时数的合同。兼职员工与全职员工享有同等权利,但有时需依据其工作性质享受与其工作时间呈比例的权利,且兼职员工一般不加班。远距离工作(远程工作)合同是指员工主要在自己家里或其选择的其他地方开展工作的劳动合同,需要以书面形式订立。

劳动合同可约定试用期。但对有职称的技术人员的试用期不能超过6个月,其他情况不能超过2个月。少于25人的企业,对其非技术员工的试用期不能超过3个月。试用期内解除劳动关系的,无需提前通知或支付补偿金。试用期内员工与正式员工享有相同的权利和义务,但与解除劳动关系相关的权利和义务除外。

另外,西班牙法律区分普通员工合同与高管合同。高管人员的雇佣条件限制较普通员工为少,更为自由。

二、职工参与企业管理和工会

在西班牙,依据企业规模大小等具体情况不同,职工参与企业管理的方式不同,包括:

1.员工代表

适用于员工人数在10到50人的公司或工厂。员工不足10人的公司或工厂,经多数员工决定,可以指定一名员工代表。员工代表通过员工投票选举产生,集体履行其职责。

2.劳资委员会

适用于拥有50名以上员工的公司或工厂。成员通过员工投票选举产生。委员会应选举一名主席和秘书,并制定议事规则。对于公司在同一省份或邻近城市拥有两个及以上工厂的企业,可设立联合劳资委员会。

员工代表和劳资委员会代表均有权从企业了解那些可能对员工造成影响的问题、有关企业状况的问题以及影响企业雇佣趋势的问题,并发表意见(知情权与陈情权)。这些代表的功能相当于中国劳动法中的"职工代表"的职权(《劳动合同法》第四条规定,涉及劳动者切身利益的事项及规章制度,应当提交给职工代表大会或全体职工大会讨论)。

另外,企业内部还可能设立职业风险防范员工代表、卫生与安全委员会等。

西班牙宪法保障工人自由参加工会的权利。在员工(无论何种合同类型员工)人数超过250人的企业或工厂中,任职于劳资委员会或公共管理机构职员代表可发起设立工会。西班牙工会主要职权有:代表劳工与雇主举行集体谈判,签署集体协议;协助协调劳动关系和处理劳动纠纷;支持劳工申诉;培训工会干部和企业委员会委员。企业在通过影响员工和工会成员的集体措施(尤其是可能致使工会成员遭到解雇和制裁的集体措施)之前,工会代表有权获得通知。工会成员还享有一定的特权。另外,在劳资双方的集体协商等劳资关系协调过程中,政府劳工部门往往起到主导作用。

三、工时与休假

工时制度。西班牙法律未规定标准工时。最高工时可在集体劳动协议或个体劳动合同中约定。一般而言,每周最高工时为40个小时,按年平均实际工作时间计算;双方可约定全年各时段不规则地分配工时。若无约定,雇主可将10%的工时适用于不规则分配工时制。

加班制度。员工加班时间每年不得超过80个小时,对于加班时间员工可自加班之日起四个月内要求补休。

休息日、年休假、带薪休假。法定每周至少休息一天半,并可累积达14天后集中休假。员工每年有权享受至少30个日历日的年休假,且雇主不得以支付工资来代替该等假期。带薪休假及事由包括:结婚、履行工会及其他社会义务、哺乳、生育、患重病或遭遇严重意外、住院、丧假、变更常住地址。

西班牙各种节假日比中国多,带薪休假事由多,员工公共福利较好。

四、社会保障

一般来说,在西班牙居住和履行职责的所有雇主、其员工、个体经营者、生产合作社成员、国内人员、军队人员和公务员都需要依据西班牙社会保障制度注册并缴款。社保体系又分成两类:一是一般社保体系,涵盖所有雇员,以及艺术从业者、职业足球运动员、销售代表、铁路工人及斗牛士;二是特殊的社保体系,涵盖农民、海员、自由职业者、公务员、家政雇员、煤矿工人、学生等。社保费用由雇主与雇员共同缴纳。

五、劳动关系的解除

与中国类似,劳动合同可因双方一致商定、合同期限届满、员工或雇主死亡或退休等法定事由而解除或终止,且实务中通常不会引起纠纷或诉讼。同样,雇主单方解雇员工也应当符合法定解除情形,包括:

1.集体裁员

雇主集体裁员之前,应与工会协商,并将协商结果报告主管劳动部门。裁员50人以上者,公司必须通过授权的职业介绍所在至少六个月的期限中向相关员工提供就业安置计划。此外,集体裁员应当支付法定离职金,最低标准为工作满一年支付20天的薪资,最高为12个月的薪资。

2.存在客观理由

例如,在雇佣后发现员工不称职或事先没有预料到员工会不称职的,雇主在提供培训或新岗位之后,如果员工仍不胜任,则可解除合同,但应给予15天通知或支付15日工资的代通知金。又如,员工连续两个月间歇性缺勤(即使有合理理由)的时间达工作时间的20%,也可构成"客观理由"。

3.纪律处分

导致劳动关系解除的纪律处分事由包括:屡次无正当理由旷工、违抗雇主合理命令、违反合同诚信原则或滥用信任、蓄意降低工作绩效、性骚扰或歧视,等等。这些事由比中国劳动合同法规定的员工过错行为更加具体,更加着眼于维护雇主的正当用工自主权。

如果雇主单方解雇被判定为无效或违法,则雇员通常有权要求恢复职位,并主张工资损失。

如果定期劳动合同的期限超过一年,则打算解除合同的一方应当提前至少15天通知另一方,或按照相关集体劳动合同规定的预先通知时间要求发送通知。

对于高级管理人员雇主可以无需理由而予以辞退,但至少需要提前3个月通知。高级管理人员有权要求获得离职经济补偿,补偿的标准一般是按工龄计算,每年补偿7天的工资额,最高的补偿限额为6个月的工资。同样,高级管理人员辞职也需要至少提前3个月通知雇主。虽然目前高级管理人员的法定离职金低于普通员工,但实际上,高级管理层合同规定的离职金通常高于法定最低限额。

六、外籍员工雇佣制度

为在西班牙生活和工作,非欧盟公民必须事先获得行政授权。获批进入西班牙居留和工作的情况有:(1)公司内部调动者,可以申请工作签证及居留,如根据劳动或职业关系或者因专业培训被调派到在西班牙设立的公司或集团公司的外籍人士;(2)符合规定条件的高素质专业人才,可以申请工作签证和居留证;(3)投资,例如购买至少200万欧元的西班牙国债,或者向西班牙公司购买至少100万欧元的股票,或者在西班牙金融机构开立的银行账户存入至少100万欧元的存款。再如,在西班牙购买至少50万欧元的房产。

七、劳动纠纷解决方式

西班牙劳动争议解决方式跟中国类似,但没有单独的劳动仲裁程序。例如,因客观理由或纪律处分而被解雇的员工,可以就雇主的决定向劳动法院提起诉讼,但通常首先会在员工和雇主之间进行调解,以期达成协议。调解在行政调停、仲裁和调解机构举行。

文中注释

[1]参见http://news.163.com/17/0328/13/CGKA294L00018AOQ_all.html 。2018年5月18日登陆。

[2]参见新华网http://www.xinhuanet.com/2015-04/22/c_1115052107.htm

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