China: 金融科技系列之区块链信息服务

Last Updated: 26 April 2019
Article by Harrison Jia
Most Read Contributor in China, August 2019

区块链具有基于时间戳的块链结构、非对称的加密算法、共识证明机制、灵活编程的智能合约、分布式记账与存储等技术创新点,其去中心化、高安全性、信任成本低、不可篡改等特征解决了一直困扰传统金融领域的信用、效率和安全的问题。区块链已经成为金融科技的底层技术,近年来区块链在金融领域也已经有了广泛的应用空间。根据工信部发布的《2018中国区块链产业白皮书》,截止到2018年3月底,我国以区块链业务为主营业务的区块链公司数量达456家,其中为金融行业应用服务的公司数量达到86家,涉及供应链金融、贸易金融、征信、交易清算、积分共享、保险、证券等多个金融领域。

区块链在金融领域发挥了积极的作用,但区块链技术在金融领域应用后也给金融监管带来了挑战:一是产生了新形式的网络犯罪与金融诈骗,二是区块链的匿名性增加了反洗钱和反恐怖主义融资的难度。一些不法分子通过区块链技术传播违法有害信息,实施网络违法犯罪活动,部分区块链信息服务提供者的安全责任意识不强,管理措施和技术保障能力不健全,对互联网信息安全提出新的挑战。2019年2月15日,国家互联网信息办公室("网信办")发布的《区块链信息服务管理规定》("《管理规定》")开始正式施行,旨在明确区块链信息服务提供者的信息安全管理责任,规范和促进区块链技术及相关服务健康发展,规避区块链信息服务安全风险。

一、区块链信息服务者之主要合规义务

1.区块链信息服务者

《管理规定》指出,区块链信息服务提供者是指向社会公众提供区块链信息服务的主体或者节点,以及为区块链信息服务的主体提供技术支持的机构或者组织。区块链信息服务是指基于区块链技术或者系统,通过互联网站、应用程序等形式,向社会公众提供信息服务。

"节点"作为非主体单位纳入区块链信息服务提供者的监管范畴,在法律规定中也是不多见的创新。节点通常指负责维护网络运行的终端,例如在互联网领域,企业的数据运行集中在服务器中,则该服务器就是一个节点。将节点定性为区块链信息服务提供者,将加大对区块链信息服务提供者的监管范围,即使区块链信息服务提供者的主体在境外,只要支撑其提供区块链信息服务的相关节点在境内,也将受到《管理规定》的规范。

根据"区块链信息服务备案管理系统",其将区块链信息服务业务分成了三大类:(1)基础设施提供方,包括矿池、云挖矿和节点;(2)技术提供方,包括区块链及服务的平台、其他;(3)应用运营方,包括区块链浏览器、钱包、其他。鉴于"信息服务提供者"概念的宽泛,金融领域所有面向大众的基于区块链技术而开发的应用的主体或节点都将是"区块链信息服务提供者"。

另外,"区块链信息服务提供者"还分为两类,向社会公众提供区块链信息服务的主体或者节点,以及为区块链信息服务的主体提供技术支持的机构或者组织。在此,为区块链金融应用或网站做技术开发的机构或组织也属于"区块信息服务提供者"。

2.区块链信息服务者之备案义务

由于区块链业务的敏感性,区块链产业长期存在实际经营主体与对外宣传主体不一致的问题。区块链信息服务提供者的备案制度在一定程度上解决了这个问题并向运营区块链业务的企业提供了合规经营的可能性。《管理规定》第11条至第15条对备案手续的内容及相关步骤进行了规定,包括:

(1)初始备案。区块链信息服务提供者应当在提供服务之日起十个工作日内通过网信办区块链信息服务备案管理系统填报服务名称、服务类别、服务形式、应用领域、服务器地址等信息,履行备案手续。

(2)变更备案。变更服务项目、平台网址等事项的,应当在变更之日起5个工作日内办理变更手续。

(3)注销备案。终止服务的,应当在终止服务30个工作日前办理注销手续。

(4)配合定期查验及补办登记。网信办对区块链信息服务备案信息实行定期查验,区块链信息服务提供者应当在规定时间内登录备案管理系统并提供相关信息。在《管理规定》公布前从事区块链信息服务的,应当自《管理规定》生效之日起20个工作日内补办有关手续。

备案成功后,相关部门还要向社会公布备案信息,这意味着区块链信息服务提供者的经营行为要接受社会公众的全面监督,并且公众还可以进行投诉举报。

3.区块链信息服务者之安全管理责任

区块链信息服务提供者的安全管理责任主要体现在网络安全义务,该义务分为以下三类:

(1)内容方面,主要指对信息内容安全的责任,包括:信息审核,有害信息禁止与删除,对新产品、新功能上线前的安全评估。

(2)运营方面,主要指运行安全的责任,包括:对区块链信息服务使用者进行真实身份信息认证,配合相关部门的定期查验并对存在的安全隐患进行整改,保存信息服务使用者的相关数据。

(3)应急处理方面,主要指在出现安全事故的时候,平台应该有应急处置的机制和能力,包括:建立应急处置、安全防护等制度,对违反法律法规的区块链信息服务使用者采取相应措施,防止信息扩散,要求区块链信息服务者具备解决自身网络安全问题的能力。

二、《区块链信息服务管理规定》对金融领域之影响

区块链技术应用具有一定的颠覆性,可能会对金融行业乃至整个经济体系都会产生积极深远的影响。以保险领域为例,上海保交所于2017年9月正式发布区块链底层技术平台("保交链"),旨在为全行业保险交易提供区块链基础设施,构建稳定、高效、安全的保险交易环境,同时发布了《保交链底层框架技术白皮书》。保交所打造"保交所区块链"模式,以打造互联互通新格局、构建保险行业交易共赢生态、重塑保险信用基础和支持行业科技进步,改变以往利用信息不对称骗保、投保人客户信息流失被盗卖、赔付效率不高等保险市场痛点问题。[1]

然而在区块链技术发展的初期,泡沫和乱象都会不断涌现。2018年8月,银保监会、中央网信办、公安部、人民银行、市场监管总局联合发布了《关于防范以"虚拟货币""区块链"名义进行非法集资的风险提示》,指出近期一些不法分子打着"金融创新""区块链"的旗号,通过发行所谓"虚拟货币""虚拟资产""数字资产"等方式吸收资金,侵害公众合法权益。此类活动并非真正基于区块链技术,而是炒作区块链概念行非法集资、传销、诈骗之实。《管理规定》的制定,将会对我国区块链技术应用的发展产生积极的推动作用,对金融科技乃至整个金融市场的稳定发展都起到积极作用。事前备案和事后监管措施并行的方式将严厉打击借用区块链的名义实施金融诈骗等违法犯罪的活动。

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on Mondaq.com.

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

Authors
 
Some comments from our readers…
“The articles are extremely timely and highly applicable”
“I often find critical information not available elsewhere”
“As in-house counsel, Mondaq’s service is of great value”

Related Topics
 
Related Articles
 
Up-coming Events Search
Tools
Print
Font Size:
Translation
Channels
Mondaq on Twitter
 
Mondaq Free Registration
Gain access to Mondaq global archive of over 375,000 articles covering 200 countries with a personalised News Alert and automatic login on this device.
Mondaq News Alert (some suggested topics and region)
Select Topics
Registration (please scroll down to set your data preferences)

Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including your content preferences, for three primary purposes (full details of Mondaq’s use of your personal data can be found in our Privacy and Cookies Notice):

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting to show content ("Content") relevant to your interests.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, news alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our content providers ("Contributors") who contribute Content for free for your use.

Mondaq hopes that our registered users will support us in maintaining our free to view business model by consenting to our use of your personal data as described below.

Mondaq has a "free to view" business model. Our services are paid for by Contributors in exchange for Mondaq providing them with access to information about who accesses their content. Once personal data is transferred to our Contributors they become a data controller of this personal data. They use it to measure the response that their articles are receiving, as a form of market research. They may also use it to provide Mondaq users with information about their products and services.

Details of each Contributor to which your personal data will be transferred is clearly stated within the Content that you access. For full details of how this Contributor will use your personal data, you should review the Contributor’s own Privacy Notice.

Please indicate your preference below:

Yes, I am happy to support Mondaq in maintaining its free to view business model by agreeing to allow Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors whose Content I access
No, I do not want Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors

Also please let us know whether you are happy to receive communications promoting products and services offered by Mondaq:

Yes, I am happy to received promotional communications from Mondaq
No, please do not send me promotional communications from Mondaq
Terms & Conditions

Mondaq.com (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd (Mondaq). Mondaq grants you a non-exclusive, revocable licence to access the Website and associated services, such as the Mondaq News Alerts (Services), subject to and in consideration of your compliance with the following terms and conditions of use (Terms). Your use of the Website and/or Services constitutes your agreement to the Terms. Mondaq may terminate your use of the Website and Services if you are in breach of these Terms or if Mondaq decides to terminate the licence granted hereunder for any reason whatsoever.

Use of www.mondaq.com

To Use Mondaq.com you must be: eighteen (18) years old or over; legally capable of entering into binding contracts; and not in any way prohibited by the applicable law to enter into these Terms in the jurisdiction which you are currently located.

You may use the Website as an unregistered user, however, you are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the Content or to receive the Services.

You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these Terms or with the prior written consent of Mondaq. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information from the Content. Nor shall you extract information about users or Contributors in order to offer them any services or products.

In your use of the Website and/or Services you shall: comply with all applicable laws, regulations, directives and legislations which apply to your Use of the Website and/or Services in whatever country you are physically located including without limitation any and all consumer law, export control laws and regulations; provide to us true, correct and accurate information and promptly inform us in the event that any information that you have provided to us changes or becomes inaccurate; notify Mondaq immediately of any circumstances where you have reason to believe that any Intellectual Property Rights or any other rights of any third party may have been infringed; co-operate with reasonable security or other checks or requests for information made by Mondaq from time to time; and at all times be fully liable for the breach of any of these Terms by a third party using your login details to access the Website and/or Services

however, you shall not: do anything likely to impair, interfere with or damage or cause harm or distress to any persons, or the network; do anything that will infringe any Intellectual Property Rights or other rights of Mondaq or any third party; or use the Website, Services and/or Content otherwise than in accordance with these Terms; use any trade marks or service marks of Mondaq or the Contributors, or do anything which may be seen to take unfair advantage of the reputation and goodwill of Mondaq or the Contributors, or the Website, Services and/or Content.

Mondaq reserves the right, in its sole discretion, to take any action that it deems necessary and appropriate in the event it considers that there is a breach or threatened breach of the Terms.

Mondaq’s Rights and Obligations

Unless otherwise expressly set out to the contrary, nothing in these Terms shall serve to transfer from Mondaq to you, any Intellectual Property Rights owned by and/or licensed to Mondaq and all rights, title and interest in and to such Intellectual Property Rights will remain exclusively with Mondaq and/or its licensors.

Mondaq shall use its reasonable endeavours to make the Website and Services available to you at all times, but we cannot guarantee an uninterrupted and fault free service.

Mondaq reserves the right to make changes to the services and/or the Website or part thereof, from time to time, and we may add, remove, modify and/or vary any elements of features and functionalities of the Website or the services.

Mondaq also reserves the right from time to time to monitor your Use of the Website and/or services.

Disclaimer

The Content is general information only. It is not intended to constitute legal advice or seek to be the complete and comprehensive statement of the law, nor is it intended to address your specific requirements or provide advice on which reliance should be placed. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the Content for any purpose. All Content provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers hereby exclude and disclaim all representations, warranties or guarantees with regard to the Content, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. To the maximum extent permitted by law, Mondaq expressly excludes all representations, warranties, obligations, and liabilities arising out of or in connection with all Content. In no event shall Mondaq and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use of the Content or performance of Mondaq’s Services.

General

Mondaq may alter or amend these Terms by amending them on the Website. By continuing to Use the Services and/or the Website after such amendment, you will be deemed to have accepted any amendment to these Terms.

These Terms shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of England and Wales and you irrevocably submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of England and Wales to settle any dispute which may arise out of or in connection with these Terms. If you live outside the United Kingdom, English law shall apply only to the extent that English law shall not deprive you of any legal protection accorded in accordance with the law of the place where you are habitually resident ("Local Law"). In the event English law deprives you of any legal protection which is accorded to you under Local Law, then these terms shall be governed by Local Law and any dispute or claim arising out of or in connection with these Terms shall be subject to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the courts where you are habitually resident.

You may print and keep a copy of these Terms, which form the entire agreement between you and Mondaq and supersede any other communications or advertising in respect of the Service and/or the Website.

No delay in exercising or non-exercise by you and/or Mondaq of any of its rights under or in connection with these Terms shall operate as a waiver or release of each of your or Mondaq’s right. Rather, any such waiver or release must be specifically granted in writing signed by the party granting it.

If any part of these Terms is held unenforceable, that part shall be enforced to the maximum extent permissible so as to give effect to the intent of the parties, and the Terms shall continue in full force and effect.

Mondaq shall not incur any liability to you on account of any loss or damage resulting from any delay or failure to perform all or any part of these Terms if such delay or failure is caused, in whole or in part, by events, occurrences, or causes beyond the control of Mondaq. Such events, occurrences or causes will include, without limitation, acts of God, strikes, lockouts, server and network failure, riots, acts of war, earthquakes, fire and explosions.

By clicking Register you state you have read and agree to our Terms and Conditions