China: 民营企业家财产权保护的若干思考

Last Updated: 6 September 2019
Article by Yonghui Zhu

民营企业家财产权保护不足的理念问题

"民营企业家财产权保护"这一话题是当事人和刑辩律师心中共同的"痛点",因为这里面的问题之多、困难之多,大家都深有体会。从法律规范看,虽然无论是宪法还是刑诉法,还是司法解释以及各个部门的规章,其实有很多的规定,但现实问题是执行得不好。为什么会这样?

我认为,在司法理念问题上,仍然存在着几大历史顽疾。第一大问题就是"重刑事、轻民事"的思想,第二大问题是"重实体、轻程序"的倾向,第三大问题就是权利保护"重人身、轻财产"的司法惯性。为什么轻视财产保护?其实是法治观念没有跟上社会和经济的发展。改革开放四十年来,私人财产大幅增加,民营企业得到了很大发展,但我们相应的法律制度尤其是相关理念还没有同步跟上,导致即使有了规定也没有得到很好的执行。

涉刑民营企业家财产权保护的七个方面

对涉刑民营企业家的财产权保护,汇总来看可以从以下七个方面进行研究和探讨,在立法、司法中进行完善。

第一方面是"准确划清涉案财产的范围和边界";第二方面是"落实涉案财物的查扣冻法定程序的完善";第三方面是"涉案财物的保管制度完善";第四方面是"涉案财物的移送与处置";例如:必要时先行处置的程序完善问题,如何及时发现非法查封、扣押、冻结的财产而保障及时返还,设立与羁押必要性审查类似的查扣冻必要性审查制度。第五方面是"涉案财产错误处置的救济机制";实践中救济权虽然有所规定,但显然效果不佳,法律规定中对办案单位违法责任追究不足。第六方面是"涉案企业正常经营的保护";民营企业与民营企业家密不可分,要充分落实对涉刑民营企业家"不羁押原则",如果羁押,羁押期间对其经营权应充分保护和落实。第七方面是"境外追逃追赃的制度完善",以及"缺席审判中相关财产的处置完善"。

从"吴英案"和"黄光裕案"看涉刑民营企业家财产权保护

京都律师事务所曾经承办过两起备受关注的民营企业家涉刑案件,一个是吴英案,一个是黄光裕案,以此为例讲一讲涉刑企业家财产处置与保护问题。

吴英,原浙江本色控股集团法定代表人,因集资诈骗被判处死缓。该案财产由当地市政府成立"资产清算小组"进行处置,这个小组以副市长牵头,由工商、税务、审计、法制办联合组成。这一做法如何与司法程序进行衔接,处置方式的合法性仍然存疑。在司法财产处置中,应当避免不适当的行政干预。第二个问题是在拍卖执行过程中价值争议很大,没有做到公开、透明。建议应当考虑设立一些制度,在涉案财产被评估、拍卖的时候,原财产所有权人如何有法定的介入程序权利,比如如果以明显低于市场价值评估、拍卖,原财产所有权人应保留回购权。

国美集团黄光裕案在保护民营企业家财产权利方面则是一个好的样板。黄光裕三罪并罚,被判处14年有期徒刑,但从侦查、审查起诉,一直到判决和执行,其对国美的企业经营权得到了相对较好的保护。办案机关为他开设了"绿色通道",国美公司的法律顾问可以与黄光裕见面沟通公司管理方面的相关工作,相当于把黄光裕的办公室挪进了看守所,挪到了监狱。基于上述做法,国美公司在黄光裕涉案问题上的损失降到了最低。

黄光裕案的做法存在一定的特殊性,公司法律顾问不以辩护人身份进入看守所也可以会见,使得涉案企业家有条件继续经营管理,这一模式值得将来在法律层面推广,目前看应考虑如何发挥辩护人的作用,因为辩护人有权会见当事人。但是,在现有辩护制度下,辩护律师却无法有大的作为,在缺乏相关法律依据的情况下,律师帮助企业家行使管理权面临较大的职业风险。前天我在北京市看守所会见,我的当事人是某公司的老总,期间他问可不可以写一个授权委托书,委托副总裁代理总裁。我无奈地说我只能把你的要求转达给办案单位,由办案单位找你签署委托书之后转交给我,我再转交给公司,因为律师会见严谨传递物品,这个"物品"显然也包括授权委托书。其实,律师帮助涉案企业家行使公司管理权还有更大的一个顾虑,就是在涉及到公司财产处置的情况下,将来发生责任谁来承担?如果因此对律师进行追责,律师恐怕难以承受。这些问题如果得不到解决,民营企业家羁押期间对企业的管理权很难落实。黄光裕案为我们开了一个好的先例,也给了我们启示,值得研究和推广。

几个值得特别关注的问题

1、严格控制异地查封

刑事案件中对财产查、扣、冻措施出现的问题比较多,其中我觉得更大的问题是"异地查封"。我一直呼吁对经济犯罪的异地立案应当加强监管,而异地查封措施也应当特别列入监管范围。我昨天从外地会见回来,该案涉及组织传销,总公司本来没有被立案,因为外省的分公司被当地立案,外省公安机关就到总公司进行大量资产查扣,数额高达数亿元。总公司所在地公安机关一看,也赶紧对总公司人员进行立案,对财产进行查扣,其实就是怕总公司资产将来都被外省执行走。这就出现因为财产问题倒逼立案的情况,而案件是否真的构成犯罪,恐怕放在了其次。实践中,这种"主客场"案件大量存在。所以,对异地立案、异地查封应当设立程序限制,例如要求共同上级公安机关作出程序性的审批,或者应当介入相应的监管机关,比如检察院等等。

2、设立对没收个人全部财产的复核程序

现在,没收个人全部财产经常出现在刑事判决中,但法律、司法解释对何种情况下才应当适用没收个人"全部"财产,却没有具体规定,我认为必须谨慎适用没收个人全部财产的实体判决。我理解,没收个人全部财产,相当于对一个人判处财产死刑,或者经济死刑,这是财产刑中最严厉的处罚。自然人的死刑还需死刑复核程序,上到最高人民法院进行复核,而没收个人全部财产的判决程序也应当从严把关,应比照死刑立即执行的复核程序,设定更严格的监督机制。

3、坚决废除赃款提留制度

不容避讳的是,办案单位对赃款的提留,是导致一小部分错案、尤其是涉财产型错案的原因之一。这类案件,往往"疑罪从有",并且当事人财产越多越危险,越容易被定罪。为避免此类错案发生,只有釜底抽薪,坚决废除赃款提留制度,以更好的保障民营企业和民营企业家的合法财产权。

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