Turkey: İPOTEĞİN PARAYA ÇEVRİLMESİ İLE TAKİPTE TMK m.887 UYARINCA MALİKE BİLDİRİM ŞARTI VE BU ŞARTA UYMAMANIN SONUÇLARI

Last Updated: 24 June 2019
Article by LBF Partners

1. İpoteğin Paraya Çevrilmesi ve TMK m. 887

İpotek, bir kişisel alacağın teminat altına alınmasını amaçlayan ve bir taşınmazın değerinden alacaklının alacağını elde etmesini sağlayan bir ayni haktır. İcra İflas Kanunu’nun (“İİK”) 45 inci maddesine göre, rehinle temin edilmiş bir alacağın borçlusu iflasa tabi şahıslardan olsa bile alacaklı yalnız rehinin paraya çevrilmesi yoluyla takip yapabilir. Alacaklı, kalan alacağını ancak rehin tutarının borcun ödenmesine yetmemesi halinde iflas veya haciz yoluyla takip edebilir.

Borçlu, borcuna karşılık kendi taşınmazını teminat olarak göstermişse, yani borçtan kişisel olarak sorumlu olan borçlu ile taşınmaz maliki aynı kişiyse, kişisel sorumluluk ile taşınmaz ile sorumluk bir aradadır. Bununla birlikte, ipoteğe konu olacak taşınmazın, her zaman borçluya ait olması gerekmez. Bir diğer deyişle, ipotekle teminat altına alınacak borcun borçlusu ile ipoteğe konu edilecek taşınmazın malikinin aynı kişi olması zorunlu olmayıp, bir kimse şahsen sorumlu olmadığı bir borç için taşınmazında alacaklı lehine ipotek kurabilir. Bu halde, malik, borçtan bütün malvarlığı ile sorumlu olmayıp, yalnızca borçlunun borcunu ödememesi halinde taşınmazın paraya çevrilmesine katlanmakla yükümlüdür.

Ancak, TMK’nın 887 inci maddesine göre, “ipotekli taşınmazın maliki borçtan şahsen sorumlu değilse, alacaklının ödeme isteminin ona karşı etkili olması, bu istemin hem borçluya hem kendisine karşı yapılmış̧ olmasına bağlıdır”. Maddenin lafzından da açıkça anlaşıldığı üzere ipotek borçlusuna müracaatta bulunulması, ödeme isteminin etkili olması açısından önem arz etmektedir. Dolayısıyla, malike TTK m.887 uyarınca ihbar yapılmadıkça, söz konusu alacak malik bakımından muaccel hale gelmeyecektir.

Bir dönem özellikle bankaların alacaklısı olduğu kredi sözleşmelerine güvence olarak verilmiş ipoteklerin paraya çevrilmesinde borçlu birlikte ipotekli taşınmazın malikine de hesap özeti gönderilmesinin, TMK. m. 887 bakımından bildirim sayılıp sayılamayacağı tartışılmaktaydı. Ne var ki, İİK’na 1988 yılında eklenen ve 2003 yılında revize edilen m.150/ı metninde yer verilen, “hesap özetinin, tazmin talebinin veya bir ihtarın ipotekli taşınmaz maliki üçüncü kişiye tebliğ edilmesi veya edilmiş sayılması TMK m. 887 anlamında ödeme istemi yerine geçer” ifadesiyle, bu konudaki tartışmalar ortadan kaldırılmıştır.

2. TMK m. 887’deki Bildirim Şartının Yerine Getirilmemesinin Sonuçları

2012 yılında yürürlüğe giren Türk Borçlar Kanunu’ndaki (“TBK”) bir borca yönelik kişisel teminat anlaşmalarına yönelik şekil kurallarını sıkılaştırma eğilimi, ipotek senetlerinde önceden sıklıkla görülen kişisel sorumluluk kayıtlarının geçerliliğini tartışmaya açmıştır. Bu nedenle, borçtan kişisel olarak sorumlu olmayan ipotekli taşınmaz maliklerine karşı takipte bulunulabilmesi için, bu kişilere takipten önce ödeme isteminin yöneltilmesi daha da önem kazanmıştır.

TTK m.887'de öngörülen bildirimin yapılması bir “takip şartı” olarak kabul edilmektedir. Dolayısıyla, bu bildirim şartının takip açıldıktan sonra tamamlattırılması söz konusu olmayıp, bu şart gerçekleştirilmeden başlatılan takibin iptali gündeme gelecektir.

Yargıtay’ın bazı kararlarında, bu bakımdan aleyhine takip başlatılan kişiye (borçlu veya taşınmaz maliki) göre bir ayrıma gidildiği görülmektedir. Yargıtay, bir kararında, TMK m.887 gereği bildirim yapılmadığı halde asıl borçlu ile malik aleyhine ya da yalnızca asıl borçlu aleyhine başlatılan bir icra takibinde, malike TMK m.887 uyarınca bildirim yapılması için süre verilmesi, süre içinde bildirim yapıldıktan sonra alacaklının malike ayrı bir takip yapılması ve daha sonra bu takibin asıl borçlu aleyhine yapılan takiple birleştirilmesi gerektiği sonucuna varmıştır1. Buna karşılık, alacaklının, yalnızca malik aleyhine takip başlatması halinde TMK m.887’de belirtilen bildirimin yapılıp yapılmadığına bakılmaksızın takibin iptali söz konusu olmaktadır2.

İİK m.150 uyarınca, alacaklının malike karşı rehnin paraya çevrilmesi yoluna başvurduğu durumda, taşınmaz malikinin, yedi gün içerisinde alacağın kendisi açısından muaccel olmadığı itirazında bulunması gerekmektedir. Yargıtay, bir kararında, ipoteğin paraya çevrilmesine ilişkin takibe malik tarafından itiraz edilmediği ve TMK m.887 itirazının bütünüyle asıl borçlu tarafından ileri sürüldüğü bir durumda da takibin iptaline karar vermiştir.3

Footnotes

1 Y. 12. HD. 06.11.2011, E.9362, K.26801, Bilgehan ÇETİNER, Taşınmaz Teminatı, İstanbul 2015, s. 291 dn. 820.

2 Krş. ÇETİNER, s. 292.

3 Y. 19. HD. 19.12.2017, E.2016/8906 K.2017/8057.

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