Turkey: Debt Recovery In Turkey By Foreign Nationals And Companies

Last Updated: 1 July 2019
Article by Ali Yurtsever

Debt recovery procedures in Turkey can be quite complex and can take a lot longer on average than most EU countries. The complexities arise from the lack of transparency and visibility within the domestic market along with the complex nature of legal proceedings for debt collection and the associated costs for such legal action. Due to the closed nature of the market, it is extremely difficult to obtain the financial information of debtor companies.

This uncertainty, coupled with the complexity of the legal proceedings and the associated costs, presents a significant issue for most foreign companies and nationals, as most of the creditors would like to obtain some sort of financial information of the debtor before starting the complex legal procedures and paying the relevant legal fees. If, for example, the debtor company is found to be insolvent after filing the execution proceedings, there would be very little chance of recovering the debt and any legal fees paid for such claim will also be lost (since it will not be possible to recover them from the debtor). There are, of course, alternative methods, such as preliminary market and financial checks regarding the debtor and amicable settlements, that the creditors can opt for, before proceeding with a execution claim filing.


Debt collection claims can be separated into two general categories, those that are based on an independent legal promissory note and those that are not. In both cases, the execution office submits an order of payment to the debtor once the claim is made. If the claim is not based on a legal note [such as a banking check, promissory note, an independent and assignable confirmed acceptance of debt by debtor etc.] there could be an objection by the debtor against the filing within 7 days from the date of receipt of the order of payment. If there is no objection to the claim or payment of the debt, the claim is considered to be certified (finalized) and the execution procedure proceeds with attachment of assets and properties of the debtor for the purposes of collection.

In case of an objection to the debt (full or partial objection), the claiming party (creditor) may apply for a legal procedure (a motion) to the execution Court for removing such objection, which may turn into a full length commercial litigation in cases where the debt is not clear and/or based on contractual default. If the debtor raises such objections to the execution filing and if later those objections are found to be groundless, then the debtor is penalized in creditor's favor raising the debt amount starting by 20%. Either following such removal of objection or after the certification of debt, the procedure finalizes with the legal sale of assets and properties of debtor for the actual collection in favor of the creditor.

It should be noted that this execution procedure is for a direct execution claim, foreign judgments or arbitral awards may also be executed in Turkey after a procedure titled recognition. In such procedure, the creditor with a finalized judgment or arbitral award applies to the Turkish Courts for recognition of such decision and the Turkish Court resolves for such recognition (without reviewing merits but with only a procedural check) and the foreign decision becomes nationalized. Then this recognition judgment is executed as noted above like a local Court judgment.


In many cases where the creditors are foreign companies or nationals, execution office require a security deposit between 25% to 100% of the total claim to be paid by the creditor in order to proceed with the execution claim. This security deposit is only required from foreign and non-resident parties (either a foreign person or a company) filing for any litigation or execution claim and for attachment (lien) over the assets of the debtor is sought in the preliminary stages of an execution. This security deposit requirement is based on Article 48 of the Turkish Act on Private International and Procedural Law (Act No. 5718).

The amount of the security deposit varies depending on the execution office, the amount and the nature of the debt subject to execution. For smaller amounts, the execution offices tend to request a full security deposit (100% of the claimed amount) to be deposited before proceeding with the execution claim (even in cases where there is a court order submitted as the basis of the execution claim). However, these deposits are requested merely as guarantees and are refunded to the claimant once the execution proceedings are finalized.

However, there are ways to circumvent this security deposit requirement. Subparagraph 2 of Article 48 of the Law sets forth that "the court exempts the plaintiff, intervener, or applicant for execution from providing a security, on a reciprocity basis", where reciprocity basis means any international agreements signed by and between Turkey and other countries where it is stated that such security deposit payments shall not be sought for countries party to those agreements.


As noted above, the procedures for debt collection proceedings in Turkey can be very complex, even more so for foreign creditors. In order to ensure a swift collection proceeding and to avoid paying any unnecessary legal fees, we highly recommend foreign creditors to seek legal assistance from legal professionals who are experienced in the field. For further information and assistance regarding the matter, please do not hesitate to contact us here (hyperlink: https://www.asylegal.com/contacts/).

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on Mondaq.com.

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

Some comments from our readers…
“The articles are extremely timely and highly applicable”
“I often find critical information not available elsewhere”
“As in-house counsel, Mondaq’s service is of great value”

Related Topics
Related Articles
Up-coming Events Search
Font Size:
Mondaq on Twitter
Mondaq Free Registration
Gain access to Mondaq global archive of over 375,000 articles covering 200 countries with a personalised News Alert and automatic login on this device.
Mondaq News Alert (some suggested topics and region)
Select Topics
Registration (please scroll down to set your data preferences)

Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including your content preferences, for three primary purposes (full details of Mondaq’s use of your personal data can be found in our Privacy and Cookies Notice):

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting to show content ("Content") relevant to your interests.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, news alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our content providers ("Contributors") who contribute Content for free for your use.

Mondaq hopes that our registered users will support us in maintaining our free to view business model by consenting to our use of your personal data as described below.

Mondaq has a "free to view" business model. Our services are paid for by Contributors in exchange for Mondaq providing them with access to information about who accesses their content. Once personal data is transferred to our Contributors they become a data controller of this personal data. They use it to measure the response that their articles are receiving, as a form of market research. They may also use it to provide Mondaq users with information about their products and services.

Details of each Contributor to which your personal data will be transferred is clearly stated within the Content that you access. For full details of how this Contributor will use your personal data, you should review the Contributor’s own Privacy Notice.

Please indicate your preference below:

Yes, I am happy to support Mondaq in maintaining its free to view business model by agreeing to allow Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors whose Content I access
No, I do not want Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors

Also please let us know whether you are happy to receive communications promoting products and services offered by Mondaq:

Yes, I am happy to received promotional communications from Mondaq
No, please do not send me promotional communications from Mondaq
Terms & Conditions

Mondaq.com (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd (Mondaq). Mondaq grants you a non-exclusive, revocable licence to access the Website and associated services, such as the Mondaq News Alerts (Services), subject to and in consideration of your compliance with the following terms and conditions of use (Terms). Your use of the Website and/or Services constitutes your agreement to the Terms. Mondaq may terminate your use of the Website and Services if you are in breach of these Terms or if Mondaq decides to terminate the licence granted hereunder for any reason whatsoever.

Use of www.mondaq.com

To Use Mondaq.com you must be: eighteen (18) years old or over; legally capable of entering into binding contracts; and not in any way prohibited by the applicable law to enter into these Terms in the jurisdiction which you are currently located.

You may use the Website as an unregistered user, however, you are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the Content or to receive the Services.

You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these Terms or with the prior written consent of Mondaq. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information from the Content. Nor shall you extract information about users or Contributors in order to offer them any services or products.

In your use of the Website and/or Services you shall: comply with all applicable laws, regulations, directives and legislations which apply to your Use of the Website and/or Services in whatever country you are physically located including without limitation any and all consumer law, export control laws and regulations; provide to us true, correct and accurate information and promptly inform us in the event that any information that you have provided to us changes or becomes inaccurate; notify Mondaq immediately of any circumstances where you have reason to believe that any Intellectual Property Rights or any other rights of any third party may have been infringed; co-operate with reasonable security or other checks or requests for information made by Mondaq from time to time; and at all times be fully liable for the breach of any of these Terms by a third party using your login details to access the Website and/or Services

however, you shall not: do anything likely to impair, interfere with or damage or cause harm or distress to any persons, or the network; do anything that will infringe any Intellectual Property Rights or other rights of Mondaq or any third party; or use the Website, Services and/or Content otherwise than in accordance with these Terms; use any trade marks or service marks of Mondaq or the Contributors, or do anything which may be seen to take unfair advantage of the reputation and goodwill of Mondaq or the Contributors, or the Website, Services and/or Content.

Mondaq reserves the right, in its sole discretion, to take any action that it deems necessary and appropriate in the event it considers that there is a breach or threatened breach of the Terms.

Mondaq’s Rights and Obligations

Unless otherwise expressly set out to the contrary, nothing in these Terms shall serve to transfer from Mondaq to you, any Intellectual Property Rights owned by and/or licensed to Mondaq and all rights, title and interest in and to such Intellectual Property Rights will remain exclusively with Mondaq and/or its licensors.

Mondaq shall use its reasonable endeavours to make the Website and Services available to you at all times, but we cannot guarantee an uninterrupted and fault free service.

Mondaq reserves the right to make changes to the services and/or the Website or part thereof, from time to time, and we may add, remove, modify and/or vary any elements of features and functionalities of the Website or the services.

Mondaq also reserves the right from time to time to monitor your Use of the Website and/or services.


The Content is general information only. It is not intended to constitute legal advice or seek to be the complete and comprehensive statement of the law, nor is it intended to address your specific requirements or provide advice on which reliance should be placed. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the Content for any purpose. All Content provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers hereby exclude and disclaim all representations, warranties or guarantees with regard to the Content, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. To the maximum extent permitted by law, Mondaq expressly excludes all representations, warranties, obligations, and liabilities arising out of or in connection with all Content. In no event shall Mondaq and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use of the Content or performance of Mondaq’s Services.


Mondaq may alter or amend these Terms by amending them on the Website. By continuing to Use the Services and/or the Website after such amendment, you will be deemed to have accepted any amendment to these Terms.

These Terms shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of England and Wales and you irrevocably submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of England and Wales to settle any dispute which may arise out of or in connection with these Terms. If you live outside the United Kingdom, English law shall apply only to the extent that English law shall not deprive you of any legal protection accorded in accordance with the law of the place where you are habitually resident ("Local Law"). In the event English law deprives you of any legal protection which is accorded to you under Local Law, then these terms shall be governed by Local Law and any dispute or claim arising out of or in connection with these Terms shall be subject to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the courts where you are habitually resident.

You may print and keep a copy of these Terms, which form the entire agreement between you and Mondaq and supersede any other communications or advertising in respect of the Service and/or the Website.

No delay in exercising or non-exercise by you and/or Mondaq of any of its rights under or in connection with these Terms shall operate as a waiver or release of each of your or Mondaq’s right. Rather, any such waiver or release must be specifically granted in writing signed by the party granting it.

If any part of these Terms is held unenforceable, that part shall be enforced to the maximum extent permissible so as to give effect to the intent of the parties, and the Terms shall continue in full force and effect.

Mondaq shall not incur any liability to you on account of any loss or damage resulting from any delay or failure to perform all or any part of these Terms if such delay or failure is caused, in whole or in part, by events, occurrences, or causes beyond the control of Mondaq. Such events, occurrences or causes will include, without limitation, acts of God, strikes, lockouts, server and network failure, riots, acts of war, earthquakes, fire and explosions.

By clicking Register you state you have read and agree to our Terms and Conditions