UK: Supreme Court Decision: Assumption Of Responsibility

Last Updated: 9 March 2018
Article by Colette Finnieston and Anne Kentish

In Steel and another (Appellants) v NRAM Limited (Respondent (Scotland) [2018] UKSC 13, the Supreme Court confirmed that, in order to prove an assumption of responsibility by a professional for a careless misrepresentation, reasonableness is a key factor. The representee must show that it was reasonable for it to rely on the representation and that the representor should reasonably have foreseen that the statement would be relied on.

The facts

The appellant solicitor acted for a company called HCL which, in 2002, purchased a business park using funds borrowed from the respondent, a commercial lender. The loan was secured over 4 commercial units in the business park.

In 2005, HCL sold one of the units. The respondent consented to the release of that unit from its security in return for partial redemption of the loan.

In 2007, HCL was selling a second unit. The respondent had confirmed that it would release that unit from its security in return for repayment of £495,000, with the balance of the loan being secured over the remaining 2 units. The appellant acted for HCL on both sales.

On the eve of the sale, the appellant emailed the respondent and asked for discharges to be signed and returned as soon as possible "as the whole loan is being paid off for the estate and I have a settlement figure for that". It was later accepted that this statement was completely inaccurate.

The respondent did not query the terms of the appellant's email and provided the discharges, which meant that it no longer had security over any of the units. It did not check the accuracy of the appellant's statement against its own file.

HCL continued to make loan repayments until 2010, when it became insolvent. At that stage, the respondent realised that its outstanding debt was unsecured.

The respondent raised proceedings against the appellant, alleging careless misrepresentation.

The judge at first instance held that it was not reasonable for a bank in the position of the respondent to rely solely upon a statement from the borrower's solicitor, without first checking its records. He also held that the appellant could not reasonably foresee that the respondent would rely on her statement without first checking it.

The Inner House (the Scottish court of appeal) held that the appellant had, in the circumstances, assumed responsibility for her representation to the respondent, and that the court did not have to consider whether the respondent had acted reasonably in relying in the representation.

The solicitor appealed to the UK Supreme Court.

The issue

The question for the Supreme Court was this - did a professional, in the position of the respondent, and in these circumstances, assume a responsibility to a third party non client for its representation?

Additionally, was the respondent's conduct (in failing to check the accuracy of the representation) relevant?

The decision

In a unanimous decision, the Supreme Court allowed the appeal, reinstating the first instance decision, and re-asserted the requirement for a representee to establish: (i) that it was reasonable for it to rely on the representation; and (ii) that the representor should reasonably have foreseen that the representee would do so.

Reasonableness is an essential element of the concept of assumption of responsibility and, therefore, the reasonableness of the respondent's actions was relevant. The respondent was a commercial lender and it was not reasonable for it to simply rely on a description of the agreed terms put forward by the borrower (through its solicitor), rather than checking its own information to make sure that this was accurate.

The court commented "these ingredients of reasonable reliance and foreseeability are particularly relevant to a claim against a solicitor by an opposing party, because it is presumed to be inappropriate for a solicitor to assume such a responsibility towards the other side".

The court identified that, whilst this concept of assumption of responsibility was the foundation of liability for careless misrepresentation, the concept might require cautious incremental development in order to fit cases to which it does not readily apply.


This is a welcome decision for solicitors (and their insurers), who are routinely required to communicate with third parties, including opponents, when handling a transaction on behalf of their client. This judgment reaffirms that the representor does not automatically assume responsibility for the accuracy of its statements in those circumstances and that reasonableness will be a key factor. The factual and commercial context will be relevant when assessing whether, in the full circumstances, it was reasonable for the third party to rely on the representation and whether it was reasonably foreseeable to the representor that the third party would do so.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

In association with
Related Topics
Related Articles
Up-coming Events Search
Font Size:
Mondaq on Twitter
Mondaq Free Registration
Gain access to Mondaq global archive of over 375,000 articles covering 200 countries with a personalised News Alert and automatic login on this device.
Mondaq News Alert (some suggested topics and region)
Select Topics
Registration (please scroll down to set your data preferences)

Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including your content preferences, for three primary purposes (full details of Mondaq’s use of your personal data can be found in our Privacy and Cookies Notice):

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting to show content ("Content") relevant to your interests.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, news alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our content providers ("Contributors") who contribute Content for free for your use.

Mondaq hopes that our registered users will support us in maintaining our free to view business model by consenting to our use of your personal data as described below.

Mondaq has a "free to view" business model. Our services are paid for by Contributors in exchange for Mondaq providing them with access to information about who accesses their content. Once personal data is transferred to our Contributors they become a data controller of this personal data. They use it to measure the response that their articles are receiving, as a form of market research. They may also use it to provide Mondaq users with information about their products and services.

Details of each Contributor to which your personal data will be transferred is clearly stated within the Content that you access. For full details of how this Contributor will use your personal data, you should review the Contributor’s own Privacy Notice.

Please indicate your preference below:

Yes, I am happy to support Mondaq in maintaining its free to view business model by agreeing to allow Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors whose Content I access
No, I do not want Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors

Also please let us know whether you are happy to receive communications promoting products and services offered by Mondaq:

Yes, I am happy to received promotional communications from Mondaq
No, please do not send me promotional communications from Mondaq
Terms & Conditions (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd (Mondaq). Mondaq grants you a non-exclusive, revocable licence to access the Website and associated services, such as the Mondaq News Alerts (Services), subject to and in consideration of your compliance with the following terms and conditions of use (Terms). Your use of the Website and/or Services constitutes your agreement to the Terms. Mondaq may terminate your use of the Website and Services if you are in breach of these Terms or if Mondaq decides to terminate the licence granted hereunder for any reason whatsoever.

Use of

To Use you must be: eighteen (18) years old or over; legally capable of entering into binding contracts; and not in any way prohibited by the applicable law to enter into these Terms in the jurisdiction which you are currently located.

You may use the Website as an unregistered user, however, you are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the Content or to receive the Services.

You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these Terms or with the prior written consent of Mondaq. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information from the Content. Nor shall you extract information about users or Contributors in order to offer them any services or products.

In your use of the Website and/or Services you shall: comply with all applicable laws, regulations, directives and legislations which apply to your Use of the Website and/or Services in whatever country you are physically located including without limitation any and all consumer law, export control laws and regulations; provide to us true, correct and accurate information and promptly inform us in the event that any information that you have provided to us changes or becomes inaccurate; notify Mondaq immediately of any circumstances where you have reason to believe that any Intellectual Property Rights or any other rights of any third party may have been infringed; co-operate with reasonable security or other checks or requests for information made by Mondaq from time to time; and at all times be fully liable for the breach of any of these Terms by a third party using your login details to access the Website and/or Services

however, you shall not: do anything likely to impair, interfere with or damage or cause harm or distress to any persons, or the network; do anything that will infringe any Intellectual Property Rights or other rights of Mondaq or any third party; or use the Website, Services and/or Content otherwise than in accordance with these Terms; use any trade marks or service marks of Mondaq or the Contributors, or do anything which may be seen to take unfair advantage of the reputation and goodwill of Mondaq or the Contributors, or the Website, Services and/or Content.

Mondaq reserves the right, in its sole discretion, to take any action that it deems necessary and appropriate in the event it considers that there is a breach or threatened breach of the Terms.

Mondaq’s Rights and Obligations

Unless otherwise expressly set out to the contrary, nothing in these Terms shall serve to transfer from Mondaq to you, any Intellectual Property Rights owned by and/or licensed to Mondaq and all rights, title and interest in and to such Intellectual Property Rights will remain exclusively with Mondaq and/or its licensors.

Mondaq shall use its reasonable endeavours to make the Website and Services available to you at all times, but we cannot guarantee an uninterrupted and fault free service.

Mondaq reserves the right to make changes to the services and/or the Website or part thereof, from time to time, and we may add, remove, modify and/or vary any elements of features and functionalities of the Website or the services.

Mondaq also reserves the right from time to time to monitor your Use of the Website and/or services.


The Content is general information only. It is not intended to constitute legal advice or seek to be the complete and comprehensive statement of the law, nor is it intended to address your specific requirements or provide advice on which reliance should be placed. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the Content for any purpose. All Content provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers hereby exclude and disclaim all representations, warranties or guarantees with regard to the Content, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. To the maximum extent permitted by law, Mondaq expressly excludes all representations, warranties, obligations, and liabilities arising out of or in connection with all Content. In no event shall Mondaq and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use of the Content or performance of Mondaq’s Services.


Mondaq may alter or amend these Terms by amending them on the Website. By continuing to Use the Services and/or the Website after such amendment, you will be deemed to have accepted any amendment to these Terms.

These Terms shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of England and Wales and you irrevocably submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of England and Wales to settle any dispute which may arise out of or in connection with these Terms. If you live outside the United Kingdom, English law shall apply only to the extent that English law shall not deprive you of any legal protection accorded in accordance with the law of the place where you are habitually resident ("Local Law"). In the event English law deprives you of any legal protection which is accorded to you under Local Law, then these terms shall be governed by Local Law and any dispute or claim arising out of or in connection with these Terms shall be subject to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the courts where you are habitually resident.

You may print and keep a copy of these Terms, which form the entire agreement between you and Mondaq and supersede any other communications or advertising in respect of the Service and/or the Website.

No delay in exercising or non-exercise by you and/or Mondaq of any of its rights under or in connection with these Terms shall operate as a waiver or release of each of your or Mondaq’s right. Rather, any such waiver or release must be specifically granted in writing signed by the party granting it.

If any part of these Terms is held unenforceable, that part shall be enforced to the maximum extent permissible so as to give effect to the intent of the parties, and the Terms shall continue in full force and effect.

Mondaq shall not incur any liability to you on account of any loss or damage resulting from any delay or failure to perform all or any part of these Terms if such delay or failure is caused, in whole or in part, by events, occurrences, or causes beyond the control of Mondaq. Such events, occurrences or causes will include, without limitation, acts of God, strikes, lockouts, server and network failure, riots, acts of war, earthquakes, fire and explosions.

By clicking Register you state you have read and agree to our Terms and Conditions