In an enervating but precedential ruling, the Board sustained a Section 2(d) opposition to registration of the mark ENGIRLNEER for "Cups; coffee cups, tea cups and mug; Lanyards for holding badges; Lanyards for holding keys; Hoodies; Shirts; Sweatshirts," finding a likelihood of confusion with the identical, common law mark for books and for educational and informational services in the STEM fields. Evidence of third-party registrations for marks covering various combinations of the involved goods and services convinced the Board of their relatedness for Section 2(d) purposes. Shannon DeVivo v. Celeste Ortiz, 2020 USPQ2d 10153 (TTAB 2020) [precedential] (Opinion by Judge Albert Zervas).
Priority: The opposed application was filed on November 18, 2017 under the Section 1(b), based on applicant's bona fide intention to use the mark in commerce. Opposer Shannon DeVivo was able to prove prior use of the mark for her STEM-related services through her declaration testimony regarding her interactive website, its downloadable book, and its depiction of several cartoon character "engirlneers" that provide educational information in STEM fields for young women and girls pursuing a career in these fields.
As to opposer's downloadable book (cover depicted above), the Board likened this case to In re Polar Music Int'l, 221 USPQ at 318, in which the CAFC found that the mark ABBA served as a trademark for the musical group ABBA's sound recordings because "[t]he public has come to expect and associate a certain quality, not just of sounds but of how the sounds are produced on the record and the physical qualities of the record itself, with the mark 'ABBA.'"
Similarly, a publisher's mark such as the term ENGIRLNEER located within the seal design may serve as more than just the source identifier for a physical good, a children's book. It also may serve to inform the public that the subject matter of the book is of a certain quality and suitability. If in printed form, it may also identify the quality of the physical product.
The Board concluded that ENGIRLNEER similarly serves as a source indicator for applicant's book:
Thus, even though ENGIRLNEERS appears in the title of the book and is the group name for the characters in the book, the positioning of the term distant from the title of the book, its inclusion within a design, its prominent size, its appearance on the second page in conjunction with an invitation to the reader to "learn how to become an engirlneer," and its appearance on the last page of the book, results in a separate and distinct commercial impression which performs the trademark function of identifying the source of Applicant's book to consumers.
The Board found that opposer had established prior rights in the mark ENGIRLNEER,
Likelihood of Confusion: Of course, since the involved marks are identical, a lesser degree of similarity between the goods/services is needed to support a finding of likely confusion. Third-party registration evidence as well opposer's evidence of use of her mark on T-shirts, tank tops, sweatshirts, hoodies, coffee mugs, stickers, postcards, greeting cards and tote bags (albeit after the filing date of the opposed application) led the Board to find that applicant's goods are related to opposer's goods and services. "Such goods tend to be collateral goods. See L.C. Licensing, Inc. v. Berman, 86 USPQ2d 1883, 1889 (TTAB 2008) ("It is common knowledge, and a fact of which we can take judicial notice, that the licensing of commercial trademarks on 'collateral products' has become a part of everyday life.")."
The Board breezed through the remaining duPont factors to reach its conclusion:
We find the marks are identical, the parties' goods and services related, and the parties' goods are subject to a low standard of purchaser care (impulse purchasing). The channels of trade and classes of customers are related, but only slightly. In view of our findings on these factors, we hold under Section 2(d) that there is a likelihood of confusion between Applicant's ENGIRLNEER mark for her goods and Opposer's identical ENGIRLNEER mark for her goods and services for which Opposer has demonstrated priority of use.
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