Switzerland: Beweisedition Und Geheimnisschutz Im Überprüfungsverfahren Nach Art. 105 FusG

Last Updated: 1 September 2015
Article by Irène Schilter

Entscheid des Schweizerischen Bundesgerichts 4A_440/2007 (BGE 134 III 255) vom 6. Februar 2008 i.S. V-AG (Beklagte und Beschwerdeführerin) gegen A (Kläger und Beschwerdegegner) sowie B, C und W-AG (alle Nebenintervenienten).

Mit Bemerkungen von lic. iur. Irène Schilter und Prof. Dr. Hans Caspar von der Crone, beide Zürich*

I. Sachverhalt

Das Bergbahnunternehmen X-AG übernahm Ende 2005 mittels Absorptionsfusion das Bergbahnunternehmen Y-AG und wechselte daraufhin die Firma in V-AG. Vor Abschluss des Fusionsvertrages wurden die beiden fusionierenden Unternehmen je einzeln durch Z bewertet. Gestützt auf die beiden Bewertungsgutachten handelten die Parteien ein Umtauschverhältnis von einer X-Aktie zu fünf Y-Aktien aus.

A, Aktionär der früheren X-AG, machte daraufhin die Unangemessenheit des Umtauschverhältnisses geltend. Seiner Ansicht nach war die X-AG unterbewertet und die Y-AG überbewertet. Aus diesem Grunde forderte er für sich, die Nebenintervenienten und alle weiteren Aktionäre der früheren X-AG eine angemessene Ausgleichszahlung.

Nach dem ergebnislosen Sühneverfahren vor dem Kreisgericht Alvaschein (GR) erhob A am 30. Mai 2006 beim Bezirksgericht Albula (GR) Klage auf «Überprüfung der Anteils-und Mitgliedschaftsrechte » nach Art. 105 FusG. Um die Unangemessenheit des Umtauschverhältnisses zu beweisen, beantragte er beim Gericht die Edition der beiden von Z erstellten Bewertungsgutachten. Die V-AG reichte daraufhin die Gutachten in einem verschlossenen Briefumschlag ein, ersuchte das Gericht allerdings, A keine direkte Einsicht in die beiden Bewertungsberichte zu gewähren. Der Präsident des Bezirksgerichts Albula (GR) lehnte das Begehren der V-AG in einem prozessleitenden Entscheid ab. Gegen diesen Entscheid erhob die V-AG Beschwerde ans Kantonsgericht, welches den Zwischenentscheid des Bezirksgerichtspräsidenten stützte. Die gegen diesen Entscheid eingelegte Beschwerde in Zivilsachen wies das Bundesgericht ab.

II. Erwägungen des Bundesgerichts

Das Bundesgericht setzt sich nach der Überprüfung der Eintretensvoraussetzungen1 einzig mit der Pfl icht zur Edition von Beweismitteln und dem Geheimnisschutz im Verfahren nach Art. 105 FusG auseinander. Dabei verwirft das Gericht die von der Beschwerdeführerin vertretene Ansicht, das Fusionsgesetz schütze Bewertungsgutachten generell und integral als Geschäftsgeheimnis [A.]. Zumindest im Grundsatz bejaht es demgegenüber einen prozessrechtlichen Geheimnisschutz aufgrund überwiegender Geheimhaltungsinteressen [B.].

A. Geheimnisschutz im Fusionsgesetz

Die Beschwerdeführerin ist der Ansicht, nach Fusionsgesetz seien Bewertungsgutachten generell als Geschäftsgeheimnisse zu schützen.2 Sie beruft sich dabei auf die Einsichtsrechte gemäss Art. 16 FusG.3 Die Bestimmung enthalte eine abschliessende Aufzählung von Dokumenten, in welche den Gesellschaftern Einsicht zu gewähren sei. Eine Einsicht-nahme in Bewertungsgutachten sei nicht vorgesehen. Bewertungsgutachten unterstünden damit für das ganze Fusionsgesetz einem allgemeinen Geheimnisschutz.4

Das Bundesgericht kommt demgegenüber zum Schluss, die Regelung der Einsichtsrechte nach Art. 16 FusG sei nicht auf das Überprüfungsverfahren nach Art. 105 FusG übertragbar.5 Art. 16 FusG enthalte ein standardisiertes Informationsverfahren, welches zur innergesellschaftlichen Transparenz vor dem Fusionsentscheid beitrage.6 Im Verfahren nach Art. 105 FusG müssten dagegen sämtliche Beweismittel zur Verfügung stehen.7 Nur so könne der Kläger den ihm obliegenden strikten Beweis erbringen.8 Zu diesen möglichen Beweismitteln gehören auch allfällige Bewertungsberichte.9

B. Prozessrechtlicher Geheimnisschutz

Dennoch schliesst das Bundesgericht nicht aus, dass überwiegende Interessen für eine Geheimhaltung von Bewertungsgutachten bestehen können.10 Die herausgabepfl ichtige Partei müsse dazu allerdings ihre Geheimhaltungsinteressen ausreichend genau umschreiben.11 Konkret machte die Beschwerdeführerin unter Bezugnahme auf Art. 16 FusG für beide Bewertungsgutachten integralen Geheimnisschutz geltend. Sie unterliess es deshalb, die zu schützenden Geschäftsgeheimnisse ausreichend genau zu bezeichnen. Mangels Bezeichnung der betroffenen Geschäftsgeheimnisse aber sei, so das Gericht, eine Interessenabwägung und somit die Anordnung eines prozessrechtlichen Geheimnisschutzes nicht möglich.12

Da es sowohl an einer gesetzlichen Grundlage für einen integralen Schutz sämtlicher Bewertungsgutachten als auch an einer ausreichend genauen Bezeichnung der zu schützenden Geheimhaltungsinteressen fehlt, weist das Bundesgericht die Beschwerde gegen den Zwischenentscheid ab.13 Beschwerdegeg ner und Nebenintervenienten haben damit im Überprüfungsverfahren vor Bezirksgericht Anspruch auf umfassende Einsichtnahme in die beiden Bewertungsberichte.14

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Footnotes

* Irène Schilter ist wissenschaftliche Assistentin am Rechtswissenschaftlichen Institut der Universität Zürich, Hans Caspar von der Crone Ordinarius für Privat- und Wirtschaftsrecht an der Universität Zürich. Der vorliegende Beitrag ist im Internet verfügbar unter http://www.rwi.uzh.ch/vdc

1 BGer 4A_440/2007 Erw. 1; der nachfolgend besprochene Entscheid fi guriert als BGE 134 III 255 in der Amtlichen Sammlung. Dabei wurde auf die Publikation der Erwägungen 1, 2.1, 2.2 und 3 verzichtet. Die Besprechung erstreckt sich aber auch auf diese Erwägungen. Die entsprechenden Stellen sind mit dem Aktenzeichen 4A_440/2007 gekennzeichnet.

2 BGer 4A_440/2007 Erw. 2.2. f.

3 BGer 4A_440/2007 Erw. 2.2.

4 BGer 4A_440/2007 Erw. 2.2. f.

5 BGE 134 III 255 Erw. 2.3.

6 BGE 134 III 255 Erw. 2.3.

7 BGE 134 III 255 Erw. 2.4.

8 BGE 134 III 255 Erw. 2.4.

9 BGE 134 III 255 Erw. 2.4.

10 BGE 134 III 255 Erw. 2.5.

11 BGE 134 III 255 Erw. 2.5.

12 BGE 134 III 255 Erw. 2.5.

13 BGE 134 III 255 Erw. 2.5 und BGer 4A_440/2007 Erw. 3.

14 BGE 134 III 255 Erw. 2.5.

Previously published in Bemerkungen zur Rechtsprechung

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