Israel: Economic Boycott / Violation Of The Duty Of Trust Of Entrepreneurs Abandoned By A Start-Up Company For The Purpose Of Establishing Another Company (Hebrew)

Last Updated: 15 August 2018
Article by Yoram Shiv and Alex Berman

מחוזי כלכלי / הפרת חובת אמון של יזמים שנטשו חברת הזנק לטובת הקמת חברה אחרת

בפסק דין זה יזם שננטש על ידי שותפיו היזמים איתם הקים חברה, תבע אותם על כך שהקימו חברה מתחרה. הסעד שנקבע על ידי בית המשפט הוא הקצאת מניות ליזם הננטש בחברה החדשה שהוקמה.

במקרה זה, מספר יזמים הקימו את חברת ההזנק דופל בע"מ )"דופל"( שפעלה בתחום אבטחה למערכות אירגוניות, כאשר כל אחד מהיזמים החזיק ברבע ממניותיה. בתקנון דופל היזמים התחייבו לפעול בתחום הקשור לתחום הפעילות של דופל רק באמצעות דופל ולהימנע מניגוד עניינים ומתחרות בדופל. לאחר ששלושה מהיזמים קיבלו הצעה מצד שלישי להקים חברה חדשה, הם נטשו את דופל והקימו יחד עם אותו צד שלישי את ארמרון טכנולוגיות בע"מ )"ארמרון"( שפעלה גם בתחום האבטחה. לאחר שדופל קרסה, היזם שנשאר בדופל תבע את היזמים שנטשו וטען לשימוש פסול בסודותיה המסחריים של דופל והפרת חובות הזהירות וחובת האמונים כלפי דופל. בנוסף, היזם טען שהצד השלישי ביצע עוולה של גרם הפרת חוזה. הסעד שהתבקש הוא הקצאה ליזם הננטש של 25% ממניות ארמרון.

לאחר בחינת הראיות, בית המשפט השתכנע כי לא נעשה שימוש בסודות המסחריים של דופל, שכן לדופל לא היו סודות מסחריים היות והחברה הייתה בשלבי פיתוח ראשוניים בלבד.

אולם, בית המשפט קבע שהטכנולוגיה המשמשת את מוצרי ארמרון הייתה בעלת פוטנציאל מימוש מסחרי במסגרת דופל ולפיכך קבע כי היזמים הנוטשים הפרו חובת אמונים לדופל, שכן כחלק מניצול הזדמנות עסקית חיצונית לחברה, פעלו שלא לטובת דופל, בניגוד עניינים ובאופן שמהווה תחרות עם בדופל. בנוסף, בית המשפט קיבל את הטענה שהצד השלישי גרם להפרת החוזה בכך ששכנע את היזמים לנטוש את דופל.

כאמור, היזם שננטש דרש 25% ממניות החברה החדשה, אך בית המשפט דחה זאת מכיוון שהקצאת המניות המבוקשת התייחסה לחברה שבה מעורבים גורמים נוספים שאינם צד לתביעה. אולם מכיוון שהתובע היה הגורם שקישר בין מייסדי ארמרון, נמצא כי הוגן וראוי לחייב את הנתבעים להקצות ליזם הננטש 5% ממניות ארמרון. השופט "נשען" על דוקטרינת "הביצוע בקירוב" כמו גם על עיקרון תום הלב, המאפשרים לבית המשפט לערוך שינויים מסוימים בדרכי ביצועו של חוזה. נוסף על כך, נפסקו הוצאות משפט נגד היזמים הנוטשים על סך של כ - 107,000 .₪

)ת"א 65217-06-15 אינטגריטי תוכנה 2011 בע"מ ואח' נ' ציון גונן ואח'(

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