In the media
Australian senate endorses news media bargaining
Latest approval takes bargaining code between news media companies and Google and Facebook a step closer to law. Australia's controversial and internationally debated News Media Bargaining Code is a step closer to being enacted into legislation following the Senate's decision to pass the Media and Digital Platforms Mandatory Bargaining Code Bill 2020.(12 February 2021). More...
Government moving in the right direction on Federal
The Law Council of Australia has long advocated for the establishment of a standalone Federal Judicial Commission and considers the government is moving in the right direction by seeking independent legal advice on its establishment, to ensure the independence of the judiciary and the separation of powers (12 February 2021). More...
Health sector targeted for cyber-crime
The Australian Cyber Security Centre (ACSC) has published a security snapshot of key cyber threats in the health sector, advising hospitals, research organisations and others on how to protect themselves from cyber security threats (11 February 2021). More...
CCC releases updated corruption allegations data
The Crime and Corruption Commission (CCC) has updated its Corruption Allegations Data Dashboard (CADD) to include data up to 31 December 2020. The CCC receives complaints about corrupt conduct from members of the public and public sector agencies, and many of these complaints contain multiple allegations (11 February 2021). More...
Research finds teens in online danger
Australia's eSafety Commissioner, Julie Inman Grant said the research, The Digital Lives of Aussie Teens, showed that while the teens' increased use of technology offered many benefits, there was a distinct downside — "dealing with negative online experiences such as unwanted contact and cyber-bullying" (11 February 2021). More...
Youth crime crackdown will not create safer Queensland
Measures announced designed to address youth crime will not work to make the community safer, says the Australian Lawyers Alliance (ALA) (09 February 2021). More...
Queensland: Tough new action to target repeat youth
The State Government will move immediately to further crackdown on juvenile crime. The new measures will target hardcore youth criminals who repeatedly offend and put the community at risk. Attorney-General Shannon Fentiman said it is anticipated necessary law changes will be introduced at this month's sittings of State Parliament. (09 November 2021). More...
Adult sentencing in Queensland–a simple
In a written statement yesterday, the Queensland Sentencing Advisory Council (QSAC) said it hoped the release of the publication would make it is easier for the community in general to understand and clarify how the sentencing process for adults worked (09 February 2021). More...
The latest edition of the Queensland Sentencing Guide breaks down barriers to help understand how courts sentence adult offenders. The new edition of the Guide is easier to understand, clarifying the sentencing process for adults, making the information more accessible for the community (08 February 2021). More...
Energy suppliers to face tougher laws
Ms Savage said the new and stronger penalties were introduced provide greater incentives for businesses to comply with laws designed to protect Australian electricity and gas consumers. he new penalty regime aligns energy laws more closely with other regimes for consumer protection and market regulation, and provides a significant scaling up of the penalties available to the courts and the AER (08 February 2021). More...
Ombudsman makes call on telecommunications
The Commonwealth Ombudsman has called for greater overall awareness from some public service Agencies relating to their obligations when intercepting communications under the Telecommunications (Interception and Access) Act and other compliance controls (08 February 2021). More...
Australia's UPR (3rd Cycle)
Australia's human rights record was considered by members of the United Nations during its third Universal Periodic Review (UPR) on 20 January 2021. The Law Council is grateful for the advice of its expert advisory committees, sections and constituent bodies in informing this submission. At the recent review, 122 countries made close to 250 recommendations for Australia. (05 February 2021). More...
Changes in culture of OMCGs
The AIC has released two papers revealing the changing culture within outlaw motorcycle gangs (OMCG). Police frequently see the damaging impact outlaw motorcycle gangs have on individuals, their families, and the community, many of who regret their decision to join a gang and now live with the consequences of their decisions (04 February 2021). More...
Appointment of Inspector-General of Intelligence and
Attorney-General, Christian Porter, announced the substantive appointment of the Hon Dr Christopher Jessup QC as the Inspector General of Intelligence and Security (04 February 2021). More...
Australian-first OMCG exit and prevention program
Minister for Police and Corrective Services and Minister for Fire and Emergency Services, the Honourable Mark Ryan MP, joined Commissioner Katarina Carroll to officially launch Australia's first exit program for former outlaw motorcycle gang members wanting a lasting way out of gang life (04 February 2021). More...
Grants to advance gender equality for Queensland
Community groups advancing gender equality for Queensland women are front and centre in a grants program opened by the Palaszczuk Government (04 February 2021). More...
Consumers let down as Govt fails to action Banking RC
two years after findings released
Super fund members, bank customers and insurance policy holders have all been let down by the Federal Government's failure to implement the recommendations of the Financial Services Royal Commission at the second anniversary of the release of Commissioner Hayne's findings, says the Australian Lawyers Alliance (ALA) (01 February 2021). More...
In practice and courts
HCA Practice Directions
Opening of the Registry
High Court of Australia, 1 of 2021
This Practice Direction takes effect on 8 February 2021.
2.Practice Direction No 2 of 2020 is revoked.
3.The office hours of the Registry shall be from 9.00 am to 1.00 pm and from 2.00 pm to 5.00 pm.
Federal Court of Australia - Updates
The February Full Court and Appellate sitting period commenced on Monday, 1 February 2021.
The Court is preparing to roll out a streaming platform, to be piloted in some upcoming Full Court matters. The platform will enable the members of the public to live stream a hearing via a fixed link accessible on the Court list and the Court's website, avoiding the need to obtain access to a specific Teams link and reducing the complexity of admitting and managing numerous parties in a Teams meeting.
Timely prosecutions [NLD]
08 February 2021 - Timely prosecutions
Compliance priorities 2021–22 – consultation 02/2021
We're developing our compliance priorities for our 2021–22 work program. Submissions close on 05 March 2021. More...
OAIC: Our FOI disclosure log
The information described in our disclosure log has been released by the OAIC under the Freedom of Information Act 1982 (FOI Act) and is available for public access. 08 February 2021 - FOI request - A copy of NobleOak's Notifiable Data Breach Form. More...
Environment and Communications References Committee
On 9 February 2021, the reporting date was extended from 17 February 2021 to 4 March 2021. More...
Finance and Public Administration Legislation
Data Availability and Transparency Bill 2020 [Provisions] and Data Availability and Transparency (Consequential Amendments) Bill 2020 [Provisions]
Operation and management of the Department of Parliamentary Services
On 13 November 2020, the reporting date was extended to 11 March 2021.
Commonwealth Electoral Amendment (Banning Dirty Donations) Bill 2020
Senate referred the Commonwealth Electoral Amendment (Banning Dirty Donations) Bill 2020 for inquiry and report by 16 March 2021.
Legal and Constitutional Affairs Legislation
Regulatory Powers (Standardisation Reform) Bill 2020 [Provisions]
Judges' Pensions Amendment (Pension Not Payable for Misconduct) Bill 2020
Legal and Constitutional Affairs References
Nationhood, national identity and democracy
Select Committee on Foreign Interference through Social
Foreign Interference through Social Media
Standing Committee for the Scrutiny of Delegated
Exemption of delegated legislation from parliamentary oversight
Finance and Public Administration References
The current capability of the Australian Public Service (APS)
05 February 2021— Law Council
Fair Work Amendment (Supporting Australia's Jobs and Economic Recovery) Bill 2020
The AAT Bulletin is a weekly publication containing a list of recent AAT decisions and information relating to appeals against AAT decisions, including immigration and citizenship. Issue No. 3/2021, 8 February 2021. More...
Commonwealth Integrity Commission: consultation
The Australian Government has released an exposure draft of legislation to establish the new Commonwealth Integrity Commission (CIC) and make other consequences legislative amendments. A fact sheet about the key features of the CIC has also been released. The consultation page includes links to the draft legislation and further information about other issues under consideration. Closing date 12 February 2021.
ACMA reminder, NBN consumer experience rules
ACMA has enhanced NBN consumer experience rules to protect Australians during the final phase of the NBN migration. The enhancements have been made to the following rules: Service Continuity Standard; Service Migration Determination; Consumer Information Standard; Complaints Handling Standard. The enhancements to the Service Continuity Standard and Service Migration Determination will start on 14 December 2020, while most enhancements to the Complaints Handling Standard and Consumer Information Standard will start on 1 April 2021. More...
LSC: Regulation of litigation funding schemes
The Legal Services Council has amended the Legal Profession Uniform General Rules 2015 with effect from 22 August 2020 so the prohibitions in s 258(1) and (3) of the Legal Profession Uniform Law do not apply in relation to litigation funding schemes now regulated as managed investment schemes. The new rule will operate for 12 months to allow for consultation See the Legal Services Council website
DJAG's online form now extends to youth justice
Following the July 2020 release of the Online Application for a Court Event form, the Department of Justice and Attorney-General (DJAG) has amended the online form to extend to Childrens Court youth justice matters. Read now
Queensland Sentencing Advisory Council : Queensland
The Queensland Sentencing Guide explains how Queensland courts sentence adults found guilty of an offence. The new edition of the Guide is easier to understand, clarifying the sentencing process for adults, making the information more accessible for the community (08 February 2021).
OIC Qld: Not irrelevant - dealing with information under
the Information Privacy Act 2009 (Qld)
Misunderstanding around how to deal with information in documents applied for under the IP Act is a common issue. To assist agencies, we have updated the Which Act applies guideline and the Deleting Irrelevant information guideline and set out some information we hope may be useful (09 February 2021). More...
Corruption Allegations Data Dashboard (CADD)
CCC: 11 February 2021
The expanded data set means allegations data for the period 1 July 2015 to 31 December 2020 is now available on the CCC website. The CADD is a tool which provides members of the public and public servants with the ability to view CCC allegations data View the updated. More...
State entities 2020
QAO Report 13 2020-21. Tabled 11 February 2021
This report summarises the financial audit results of Queensland state government entities for 2019–20, including the 22 government departments. This report summarises their audit results; evaluates the quality and timeliness of financial reporting; and explores how entities addressed the risks of rapidly delivering new pandemic-related programs in 2020. More...
QAO's new approach for following up
We have recently developed a new online self-assessment system that allows entities to self-assess their progress implementing our recommendations. This new system makes it easier for entities to report their progress (02 February 2021). More...
Our fact sheet Entity self-assessments on implementation of QAO recommendations provides more information about our new self-assessment system.
How robust is your CFO assurance statement?
QAO Advice: 11 February 2021
Good internal controls provide reasonable assurance that an entity is achieving its operational, reporting, and compliance objectives. They also serve to protect an entity from fraud or error. More...
Annual report 2019-20 feedback survey
Open until 30 June 2021 - Department of the Premier and Cabinet
By taking a minute to complete this survey, you will help us improve our annual reports so readers can use them more effectively.
Queensland Law Reform Commission Consultation Paper
– a legal framework for voluntary assisted dying
The Queensland Law Reform Commission is seeking feedback on the Consultation Paper " A legal framework for voluntary assisted dying". The Consultation Paper explores a legal framework for voluntary assisted dying.. For more information please see the consultation page and the terms of reference. Note: The Commission continues to work hard on this review, and hopes to meet a reporting date of 10 May 2021. This document is intended to inform the public about the Commission's task and its processes, and how it hopes to complete the review by 10 May 2021.
Department of the Premier and Cabinet Consultation
Annual report 2019-20 feedback survey
By taking a minute to complete this survey, you will help us improve our annual reports so readers can use them more effectively. Open until 30 June 2021. More...
Published - articles, papers, reports
Commonwealth Ombudsman reports
05/02/2021 - A report on the Commonwealth Ombudsman's monitoring of agency access to stored communications and telecommunications data under Chapters 3 and 4 of the Telecommunications (Interception and Access) Act 1979
For the period: 1 July 2018 to 30 June 2019
The digital lives of Aussie teens
eSafety Commissioner: 11 February 2021
New research has found that three in 10 teenagers have been contacted online by strangers, and spending around two hours a day online and on average used four different social media services. There is also a good chance they have had a negative experience online PS News link.
2020 Sector Snapshot: Health
Cyber Security Centre: February 2021
This report provides a high-level overview of the cyber security environment within the health sector over a twelve month period (1 January to 31 December 2020). More...
'WP' and Secretary to the Department of Home
Affairs (Privacy)  AICmr
Privacy — Privacy Act 1988 (Cth) — Information Privacy Principles — IPP 4 — Data security failure — IPP 11 — Unauthorised disclosure of personal information — Breaches substantiated — Compensation awarded — s 52(4)(a) — Manner in which the amount of compensation payable to class members is to be calculated — s 52(5)(b) — Process for determining any dispute regarding the entitlement of a class member to the payment
Department of Home Affairs privacy
This matter is the first representative action where we have found compensation for non-economic loss payable to individuals affected by a data breach. t recognises that a loss of privacy or disclosure of personal information may impact individuals and depending on the circumstances, cause loss or damage.
Oakey Coal Action Alliance Inc v New Acland Coal Pty
Ltd  HCA 2
Appeal allowed. Administrative law – Apprehended bias – Relief – Jurisdiction of inferior courts – Where first respondent applied for additional mining leases and amendment to existing environmental authority ("applications") – Where appellant and others lodged objections to applications – Where first decision of Land Court of Queensland ("Land Court") recommended that both applications be rejected – Where Supreme Court of Queensland rejected arguments by first respondent that recommendations made by Land Court affected by apprehended bias, but held recommendations involved errors of law and remitted certain matters to Land Court for reconsideration – Where second decision of Land Court constituted by different Member recommended applications be approved subject to conditions – Where amendment to environmental authority granted by delegate of second respondent – Where Court of Appeal allowed cross-appeal by first respondent and held that recommendations in Land Court's first decision affected by apprehended bias – Whether open to Court of Appeal, after finding that recommendations in Land Court's first decision affected by apprehended bias, not to refer matters to which recommendations related back to Land Court for full reconsideration, and instead to make consequential orders limited to declaration that procedural fairness not observed – Whether matters to which recommendations related should not be referred back to Land Court on basis of discretion to refuse relief. Environmental Protection Act 1994 (Qld), Ch 5. Judicial Review Act 1991 (Qld), s 30. Land Court Act 2000 (Qld). Mineral Resources Act 1989 (Qld), Ch 6.
Kingdom of Spain v Infrastructure Services Luxembourg
S.a.r.l.  FCAFC
ARBITRATION – international arbitration – applications for recognition and enforcement of awards of the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) under s 35(4) of the International Arbitration Act 1974 (Cth) ('Arbitration Act')
PRIVATE INTERNATIONAL LAW – foreign state immunity – where foreign state respondent asserts sovereign immunity – interaction between s 9 of the Foreign States Immunities Act 1985 (Cth) ('Immunities Act') and the Convention on the Settlement of Investment Disputes between States and Nationals of Other States (the ICSID Convention) which is given the force of law by s 32 of the Arbitration Act – where s 9 of the Immunities Act provides that a foreign state is immune from the jurisdiction of the courts of Australia in a proceeding – where s 10 of the Immunities Act provides that a foreign state is not immune in a proceeding in which it has submitted to jurisdiction whether by agreement or otherwise – whether by Art 54(2) of the ICSID Convention the foreign state respondent has agreed to submit itself to the jurisdiction within the meaning of s 10 of the Immunities Act
PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW – foreign state immunity – interpretation of the ICSID Convention – whether the ICSID Convention excludes any claim for foreign state immunity in proceedings for the recognition and enforcement of an award – meaning of recognition and enforcement in Art 54 and execution in Art 55 – where Art 55 provides that nothing in Art 54 shall be construed as derogating from the law in force in any Contracting State in relation to immunity from execution
Foreign States Immunities Act 1985 (Cth) Pts II, IV; ss 3, 7, 9, 10; International Arbitration Act 1974 (Cth) Pt IV; ss 32, 34, 35; Judiciary Act 1903 (Cth) s 39B; Federal Court Rules 2011 (Cth) r 36.32; Convention on the Recognition and Enforc
Ashby v Commonwealth of Australia  FCA
ADMINISTRATIVE LAW – application for review of decision to refuse application for an act of grace payment under s 65(1) of the Public Governance, Performance and Accountability Act 2013 (Cth) – where act of grace payment sought for the purpose of satisfying legal fees incurred in litigation relating to alleged conduct by a member of the Parliament of Australia – where previous litigation discontinued before trial by the applicant due to purported financial pressure – where the Member of Parliament was granted an act of grace payment in relation to his legal fees – whether there was an error by the delegate of the Minister in failing to assess the claim in support of the act of grace application that the applicant was a whistle-blower, alternatively that this claim was not assessed to the requisite level of detail – whether the delegate's finding that there was no basis for an argument that the previous act of grace payment to a litigant had an influence over the litigation was irrational – whether the delegate failed to have regard to relevant evidence that the proceeding was not highly politicised – whether there was any error in the delegation rendering the decision-making power of the delegate void – held: the delegate did not fail to assess the whistle-blower claims made by the applicant and was not required to give further or better consideration to these claims – the delegate's finding that the act of grace payment made to the Member of Parliament did not influence the litigation was not irrational and was not outside of the exercise of their jurisdiction – there was no failure to deal with evidence relating to the claims that the proceeding was highly politicised – the applicant's construction of the delegation power was not sensible or pragmatic and the conduct of the delegate in this case was clearly contemplated by the delegation's authorising Act – application dismissed with costs
Administrative Decisions (Judicial Review) Act 1977 (Cth) ss 5, 16)
Fair Work Act 2009 (Cth)
Financial Management and Accountability Act 1997 (Cth) s 33
Secretary of the Department of Finance (Cth), Public Governance, Performance and Accountability (Finance Secretary to Finance Officials) Delegation 2020 (No 1) (22 January 2020) sch 1A pt 11
Members of Parliament (Staff) Act 1984 (Cth)
Judiciary Act 1903 (Cth) s 39B
Public Governance, Performance and Accountability Act 2013 (Cth) ss 65(1), 107, 109
Public Governance, Performance and Accountability Rule 2014 (Cth) s 24
Safety, Rehabilitation and Compensation Act 1988 (Cth)
& Ors v Walters  QCA
STATUTES – ACTS OF PARLIAMENT - INTERPRETATION – OTHER MATTERS – where the respondent was suspended from duty under s 137 of the Public Service Act 2008 (Qld) over alleged conduct concerns – where the letter notifying the respondent of his suspension stated that his suspension would remain in place until an investigation could be undertaken and the outcome had been considered – where the primary judge found that the failure to specify an end date in the suspension notice contravened the requirement under s 137(2)(a) of the Public Service Act 2008 (Qld) – where the primary judge erred in construing s 137 of the Public Service Act 2008 (Qld) – whether the suspension notice described the event on which the suspension would end in terms that made the end of the suspension ascertainable by reference to the event
ADMINISTRATIVE LAW – JUDICIAL REVIEW – POWERS OF COURTS UNDER JUDICIAL REVIEW LEGISLATION – ORDERS TO QUASH DECISION – where the respondent was suspended from duty under s 137 of the Public Service Act 2008 (Qld) over alleged conduct concerns – where the primary judge exercised discretion under s 30(1)(a) Judicial Review Act 1991 (Qld) to quash the suspension decision from the date it was made – whether the primary judge erred by considering inadmissible evidence – whether the primary judge erred in quashing the suspension decision from the date it was made
ADMINISTRATIVE LAW – JUDICIAL REVIEW – REVIEWABLE DECISIONS AND CONDUCT – DECISIONS TO WHICH JUDICIAL REVIEW LEGISLATION APPLIES – DECISIONS UNDER AN ENACTMENT – PARTICULAR CASES – where the respondent was suspended from duty under s 137 of the Public Service Act 2008 (Qld) over alleged conduct concerns – where the decision to suspend the respondent was made under the Credentialing Procedure for practitioners in Metro North Hospital and Health Service – where the Credentialing Procedure was made pursuant to a statutory instrument that satisfied s 7(2) Statutory Instruments Act 1992 (Qld) – where the Credentialing Procedure results in practitioners being held out by the relevant Health Service as qualified to treat a patient in the area of clinical practice for which they are credentialed at the relevant public health facility – whether the Credentialing Procedure was a standard or a guideline of a public nature under s 7(3) Statutory Instruments Act 1992 (Qld). Judicial Review Act 1991 Qld s 30; Public Service Act 2008 Qld s 25, s 99, s 137, s 189; Statutory Instruments Act 1992 Qld s 7
v David Hansen on behalf of Logan City Council
 QDC 12
CRIMINAL LAW – PLANNING ACT OFFENCES – APPEAL FROM MAGISTRATES COURT – Interpreters not sworn – inadmissible evidence tendered – whether miscarriage of justice
Justices Act 1886 Qld; Local Government Act 2009 Qld; Oaths Act 1967 Qld; Planning Act 2016 Qld; Sustainable Planning Act 2009 Qld
Coal Pty Ltd v Youth Verdict Ltd & Ors (No 2)
 QLC 4
HUMAN RIGHTS – JURISDICTION AND PROCEDURE – QUEENSLAND – where the objectors contended that the grant of a mining lease and environmental authority would be incompatible with the Human Rights Act 2019 – where the objectors provided particulars to that effect – where the applicant contended that particulars provided did not adequately inform the applicant as to the case they had to meet nor the real issues in dispute – where the applicant sought further and better particulars – where the Department of Environment and Science identified five steps for the Court in complying with s 58 of the Human Rights Act 2019 – where the Department of Environment and Science submitted that the human rights case raised by the objectors was not adequately articulated – where the human rights case involves questions of law and policy as well as facts and circumstances – where the Court concluded requiring further particulars was not the best way to fully articulate the human rights case – where the Court identified different processes for that to occur
ENERGY AND RESOURCES – MINERALS – COURTS OR TRIBUNALS EXERCISING JURISDICTION IN MINING MATTERS – PROCEDURE –– PARTICULARS – where the Court has wide discretion in its procedure but must afford procedural fairness – where the Court must assess what particulars are necessary in order for the other party to know what case they must meet – where the applicant sought particulars based on five categories defined by the objectors' reasons for refusing to provide them – where the Court considered whether other processes could clarify the real issues – where the Court ordered the objectors to provide an exhaustive list of classes of individuals whose human rights they say will be limited by the application being granted – where the Court did not order further particulars on other matters at this stage of the case
Environmental Protection Act 1994 Qld s 182, s 185, s 186(a); Human Rights Act 2019 Qld s 13, s 15, s 16, s 24, s 25(a), s 26(2), s 28, s 58, s 58(1)(a), s 58(1)(b), s 58(2; Mineral Resources Act 1989 Qld s 265(1), s 265(2), s 265(10), s 268; Uniform Civil Procedure Rules 1999 Qld r 157
and Corruption Commission v Acting Deputy Commissioner Wright &
Anor  QCAT
POLICE – INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION – DISCIPLINE AND DISMISSAL FOR MISCONDUCT – QUEENSLAND – where confidential databases accessed – whether accessed by the subject officer – whether accessed for an official purpose Police Service Administration Act 1990 Qld s 1.4
t/as LK & HM Young v Queensland Building and Construction
Commission  QCAT
ADMINISTRATIVE LAW – ADMINISTRATIVE TRIBUNALS – QUEENSLAND CIVIL AND ADMINISTRATIVE TRIBUNAL – where direction to rectify issued – circumstance of fresh evidence showing responsibility of another building contractor for performance of defective building work the subject of the direction – consideration of Tribunal's review jurisdiction generally – meaning of 'building work' and 'defective building work'.
Queensland Civil and Administrative Tribunal Act 2009 Qld s 20, s 24; Queensland Building and Construction Commission Act 1991 Qld s 71l, s 72, s 72A, s 86, s 87
Appeals Tribunal Act 1975
02/02/2021 - Act No. 91 of 1975 as amended
Security Intelligence Organisation Amendment (Permitted Disclosure)
05/02/2021 - This instrument amends the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation Regulation 2016 to make consequential and technical updates following the commencement of Schedule 1 to the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation Amendment Act 2020.
Regulatory Powers (Standardisation Reform) Bill 2020
On 10 December 2020 the Senate referred the provisions of the Regulatory Powers (Standardisation Reform) Bill 2020 to the Legal and Constitutional Affairs Legislation Committee for inquiry and report by 19 February 2021.
Electoral and Other Legislation (Accountability, Integrity
and Other Matters) Amendment Act 2020 (Qld)
The key policy objective of Chapter 2 is to improve the actual and perceived integrity and public accountability of State elections and ensure public confidence in State electoral and political processes
Commencement: (1)Chapter 2 commences as follows— Chapter 2 commences as follows— (b)section 22, to the extent it inserts new part 11, division 5, commences on 1 January 2022;
Subordinate legislation reminder
No 144 Electoral Amendment Regulation 2020
5 Amendment of s 8 (Amount of policy development payment to which eligible registered political party is entitled—Act, s 240) (1) Section 5 commences on 1 January 2022
This publication does not deal with every important topic or change in law and is not intended to be relied upon as a substitute for legal or other advice that may be relevant to the reader's specific circumstances. If you have found this publication of interest and would like to know more or wish to obtain legal advice relevant to your circumstances please contact one of the named individuals listed.