Panama: Sexual Harassment In Companies And In The Education Sector

Last Updated: 8 June 2018
Article by Ricardo Aleman

The International Labor Organization (ILO) defines sexual harassment as "any conduct of unwanted sexual nature that, according to the reasonable perception of the recipient, interferes with their work, is established as a condition of employment or creates an intimidating hostile or offensive work environment."

As the jurist Oscar Vargas Velarde points out in his work on Labor Law, jurisprudence in the United States indicates that sexual harassment can also occur in two aspects:

  • First: the "quid pro quo", in which some type of reward is offered (promotion, salary raise, etc.) in return for sexual favors. It is direct harassment and the determining factor is that the conduct is unwelcome by the person to whom the conduct is directed.
  • Second: the hostile work environment, in which sexual harassment is sufficiently severe or pervasive enough to alter the victim's employment conditions and foster an abusive work environment.

Types of Sexual Harassment

Taking into consideration the definitions and criteria of the various courts, Panamanians and foreigners, we can determine the existence of at least three types of sexual harassment, namely:

  1. Harassment or persecution between co-workers, of the opposite sex or of the same sex, for eminently sexual purposes.
  2. The intimidation or harassment of a boss towards a subordinate, including under promises of salary or position improvements or threats of sanctions or dismissal also for sexual purposes.
  3. Work environment harassment, which is unwelcome sexual incitements or solicitations, with the purpose or effect of coercing in an unjustified manner a person's work performance or creating an offensive, hostile, intimidating or abusive work environment to achieve that the worker leaves the job. This discomfort may be manifested through the display of pornographic material, such as magazines, photographs, mail or other means.

As noted, these conducts can be of varied nature, such as requirements, propositions, jokes, teasing, and display of posters or photos with sexist remarks, from physical behaviors or unwanted contact that can be vexatious for the victim, until it becomes assault or sexual assault.

Many victims of sexual harassment accept this situation and do not report it because they fear losing their jobs and, also, for fear of not being taken seriously since most of the time they do not have evidence to prove the harassment and, thus, it would be one's person word against another one. Although the victims of sexual harassment are mostly women, men also suffer from them, especially in today's world where more and more women occupy more important or higher-ranking roles within companies.

What does Panamanian legislation say for companies?

The Republic of Panama approved Law 7 of February 14, 2018, which adopts measures to prevent, prohibit and punish discriminatory acts and dictates other provisions. The provisions of the Law are of public order and bind all those who are in the national territory.

This law prohibits and establishes responsibility for all acts of violence that threaten the honor, dignity, physical and psychological integrity of the people. It also defines "harassment, sexual or moral harassment", as the systematic or continuous action or omission or eventual repetition, in which a person insinuates, invites, requests, pursues, limits or restricts rights, diminishes freedom, acts disrespectfully or offensively, humiliates others in order to obtain some sexual retribution or affects the dignity of the other person.

In the workplace, it includes, but is not limited to, exploitation, the refusal to give the victim the same employment opportunities, not applying the same selection criteria, not respecting the permanence or general conditions of work or discrediting the work accomplished.

It defines "racism", as a conception that starts from a superiority of certain races or race over others, and "sexism", as the attitude or action that undervalues, excludes, over presents and stereotypes people by their sex.

Obligations of the employer according to the new Law

Every employer shall have the responsibility to establish an internal policy, through orientation programs and included in the internal regulations or collective agreements, that prevents, avoids, discourages and sanctions the acts of harassment, sexual or moral harassment, racism and sexism.

Failure to comply with the measures ordered by the employers entails a fine of B/.550.00 to B/.1,000.00, imposed by the jurisdictional labor authority, each time a case is sanctioned for any of the conducts provided in the law.

The Ministry of Labor and the hierarchical superiors in the private company are the entities in charge of ensuring compliance with the Law, when the responsibility for establishing the policy against the described conducts is borne by the employer.

What should the affected employee do?

An employee who feels sexually harassed or persecuted should inform their superior or the corresponding department what is occurring and provide evidence, if available, to allow the employer to conduct the corresponding investigation, which allows him/her to dismiss the harasser on justified grounds. Likewise, the employee harassed by a superior, for sexual purposes, can resign from employment on justified grounds, and by proving what has been reported, the employee shall be entitled to payment of the compensation provided for in the Labor Code, in cases of dismissals with cause justified.

The procedure to investigate and resolve cases of harassment, sexual or moral harassment, racism and sexism shall be expeditious, effective and confidential and in no case may exceed the period of three months, counted from the filing of the complaint.

Whenever a case of harassment, sexual or moral harassment, racism and sexism is reported, companies must prepare a written report thereof, which shall contain the details of the investigation, allegations and testimonies and other elements of evidence.

Whoever falsely denounces any conducts sanctioned in the Law shall commit the offense of criminal simulation, according to the Criminal Code.

Effects of the law in the education sector

The regulations set forth in Law 7 of February 14, 2018 also apply to students of educational and teaching centers, both official and private within the Republic of Panama.

It defines harassment, sexual or moral harassment, such as threats, intimidation, humiliation, mocking, physical abuse and discrimination against people with disabilities or any type of discrimination based or not on the sex of the victim.

It also defines racism as the conception that starts from a superiority of certain races or races over others, based on a supposed biological purity that must be translated into advantages for the superior race, or in the recognition of its dominion over others or others that are eventually discriminated against and treated unworthily.

On the other hand, sexism is defined as the attitude or action that undervalues, excludes, over represents and stereotyped people by sex.

Obligations of educational entities

Every official or private school shall have the responsibility to establish an internal policy that prevents, avoids, discourages and punishes acts of harassment, sexual or moral harassment, racism and sexism. Consequently, they should:

  1. Implement counseling, guidance and promotion programs on the prohibition of conducts provided by law.
  2. Establish, through internal work regulations or orders of management, a complaint and resolution procedure, adequate and effective, to enable the submission of complaints for such conducts. This procedure must establish adequate internal policies as established in this law providing confidentiality, protection to the claimant and witnesses, as well as an exemplary sanction for those engaging in the described conduct. Said procedure may not exceed a period of three months to be established.

Non-compliance with the measures set forth in the law by employers, hierarchical superiors of the victim in educational centers shall be sanctioned with a fine of B/.500.00 to B/.1,000.00.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on Mondaq.com.

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

Authors
 
Some comments from our readers…
“The articles are extremely timely and highly applicable”
“I often find critical information not available elsewhere”
“As in-house counsel, Mondaq’s service is of great value”

Related Topics
 
Related Articles
 
Up-coming Events Search
Tools
Print
Font Size:
Translation
Channels
Mondaq on Twitter
 
Mondaq Free Registration
Gain access to Mondaq global archive of over 375,000 articles covering 200 countries with a personalised News Alert and automatic login on this device.
Mondaq News Alert (some suggested topics and region)
Select Topics
Registration (please scroll down to set your data preferences)

Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including your content preferences, for three primary purposes (full details of Mondaq’s use of your personal data can be found in our Privacy and Cookies Notice):

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting to show content ("Content") relevant to your interests.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, news alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our content providers ("Contributors") who contribute Content for free for your use.

Mondaq hopes that our registered users will support us in maintaining our free to view business model by consenting to our use of your personal data as described below.

Mondaq has a "free to view" business model. Our services are paid for by Contributors in exchange for Mondaq providing them with access to information about who accesses their content. Once personal data is transferred to our Contributors they become a data controller of this personal data. They use it to measure the response that their articles are receiving, as a form of market research. They may also use it to provide Mondaq users with information about their products and services.

Details of each Contributor to which your personal data will be transferred is clearly stated within the Content that you access. For full details of how this Contributor will use your personal data, you should review the Contributor’s own Privacy Notice.

Please indicate your preference below:

Yes, I am happy to support Mondaq in maintaining its free to view business model by agreeing to allow Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors whose Content I access
No, I do not want Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors

Also please let us know whether you are happy to receive communications promoting products and services offered by Mondaq:

Yes, I am happy to received promotional communications from Mondaq
No, please do not send me promotional communications from Mondaq
Terms & Conditions

Mondaq.com (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd (Mondaq). Mondaq grants you a non-exclusive, revocable licence to access the Website and associated services, such as the Mondaq News Alerts (Services), subject to and in consideration of your compliance with the following terms and conditions of use (Terms). Your use of the Website and/or Services constitutes your agreement to the Terms. Mondaq may terminate your use of the Website and Services if you are in breach of these Terms or if Mondaq decides to terminate the licence granted hereunder for any reason whatsoever.

Use of www.mondaq.com

To Use Mondaq.com you must be: eighteen (18) years old or over; legally capable of entering into binding contracts; and not in any way prohibited by the applicable law to enter into these Terms in the jurisdiction which you are currently located.

You may use the Website as an unregistered user, however, you are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the Content or to receive the Services.

You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these Terms or with the prior written consent of Mondaq. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information from the Content. Nor shall you extract information about users or Contributors in order to offer them any services or products.

In your use of the Website and/or Services you shall: comply with all applicable laws, regulations, directives and legislations which apply to your Use of the Website and/or Services in whatever country you are physically located including without limitation any and all consumer law, export control laws and regulations; provide to us true, correct and accurate information and promptly inform us in the event that any information that you have provided to us changes or becomes inaccurate; notify Mondaq immediately of any circumstances where you have reason to believe that any Intellectual Property Rights or any other rights of any third party may have been infringed; co-operate with reasonable security or other checks or requests for information made by Mondaq from time to time; and at all times be fully liable for the breach of any of these Terms by a third party using your login details to access the Website and/or Services

however, you shall not: do anything likely to impair, interfere with or damage or cause harm or distress to any persons, or the network; do anything that will infringe any Intellectual Property Rights or other rights of Mondaq or any third party; or use the Website, Services and/or Content otherwise than in accordance with these Terms; use any trade marks or service marks of Mondaq or the Contributors, or do anything which may be seen to take unfair advantage of the reputation and goodwill of Mondaq or the Contributors, or the Website, Services and/or Content.

Mondaq reserves the right, in its sole discretion, to take any action that it deems necessary and appropriate in the event it considers that there is a breach or threatened breach of the Terms.

Mondaq’s Rights and Obligations

Unless otherwise expressly set out to the contrary, nothing in these Terms shall serve to transfer from Mondaq to you, any Intellectual Property Rights owned by and/or licensed to Mondaq and all rights, title and interest in and to such Intellectual Property Rights will remain exclusively with Mondaq and/or its licensors.

Mondaq shall use its reasonable endeavours to make the Website and Services available to you at all times, but we cannot guarantee an uninterrupted and fault free service.

Mondaq reserves the right to make changes to the services and/or the Website or part thereof, from time to time, and we may add, remove, modify and/or vary any elements of features and functionalities of the Website or the services.

Mondaq also reserves the right from time to time to monitor your Use of the Website and/or services.

Disclaimer

The Content is general information only. It is not intended to constitute legal advice or seek to be the complete and comprehensive statement of the law, nor is it intended to address your specific requirements or provide advice on which reliance should be placed. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the Content for any purpose. All Content provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers hereby exclude and disclaim all representations, warranties or guarantees with regard to the Content, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. To the maximum extent permitted by law, Mondaq expressly excludes all representations, warranties, obligations, and liabilities arising out of or in connection with all Content. In no event shall Mondaq and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use of the Content or performance of Mondaq’s Services.

General

Mondaq may alter or amend these Terms by amending them on the Website. By continuing to Use the Services and/or the Website after such amendment, you will be deemed to have accepted any amendment to these Terms.

These Terms shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of England and Wales and you irrevocably submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of England and Wales to settle any dispute which may arise out of or in connection with these Terms. If you live outside the United Kingdom, English law shall apply only to the extent that English law shall not deprive you of any legal protection accorded in accordance with the law of the place where you are habitually resident ("Local Law"). In the event English law deprives you of any legal protection which is accorded to you under Local Law, then these terms shall be governed by Local Law and any dispute or claim arising out of or in connection with these Terms shall be subject to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the courts where you are habitually resident.

You may print and keep a copy of these Terms, which form the entire agreement between you and Mondaq and supersede any other communications or advertising in respect of the Service and/or the Website.

No delay in exercising or non-exercise by you and/or Mondaq of any of its rights under or in connection with these Terms shall operate as a waiver or release of each of your or Mondaq’s right. Rather, any such waiver or release must be specifically granted in writing signed by the party granting it.

If any part of these Terms is held unenforceable, that part shall be enforced to the maximum extent permissible so as to give effect to the intent of the parties, and the Terms shall continue in full force and effect.

Mondaq shall not incur any liability to you on account of any loss or damage resulting from any delay or failure to perform all or any part of these Terms if such delay or failure is caused, in whole or in part, by events, occurrences, or causes beyond the control of Mondaq. Such events, occurrences or causes will include, without limitation, acts of God, strikes, lockouts, server and network failure, riots, acts of war, earthquakes, fire and explosions.

By clicking Register you state you have read and agree to our Terms and Conditions