1 Treaties: Current Status and Future Developments
1.1 What bilateral and multilateral treaties and trade agreements has your jurisdiction ratified?
Trends in trade and investment policies in the MENA region held at the Dead Sea, Jordan 27–28 November 2018 reported that the United Arab Emirates has rectified and participated in a number of agreements and treaties. With 37 Bilateral Investment Treaties already in force, we can see that the United Arab Emirates has signed a variety of bilateral and multilateral investment treaties. It is a founding member of the Gulf Cooperating Council (GCC), and through its participation in it has signed preferential trade agreements with Singapore (signed 2008 and in force 2013) and the European Free Trade Association (signed 2009 and in force 2014). The United Arab Emirates is a party to the Pan Arab Free Trade Agreement (PAFTA/GAFTA) (1998), and, as of 4 September 2018, has signed 62 bilateral investment treaties with developed and developing countries, 37 of which are currently in force. The UAE has also entered into a Trade Investment Framework Agreement with the United States (2004) to provide a framework for dialogue on economic reform and trade liberalisation. In addition, the United Arab Emirates is a party to a number of international treaties and Agreements such as: the Agreement between the Government of Australia and the Government of the United Arab Emirates relating to air services, and the Agreement between the Government of Australia and the Government of the United Arab Emirates concerning defence cooperation.
UAE has joined the United Nations and the Arab League and has established diplomatic relations with more than 60 countries. The UAE is a member of the following international organisations: UN and several of its specialised agencies (ICAO, ILO, UPU, WHO, WIPO); World Bank, IMF, Arab League, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC), OPEC, Organisation of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries, and the Non-Aligned Movement.
In addition, the UAE signed bilateral agreements with the following countries: the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, 2006; the Republic of Algeria, 2007; the Republic of Azerbaijan, 2011; the Republic of India, 2012; the Republic of Kazakhstan, 2012; the Republic of Argentina, 2013; the Republic of Armenia, 2013; the Republic of Maldives, 2014; the Republic of South Korea, 2015; the Kingdom of Morocco, 2015; and the Kingdom of the Netherlands, 2015. Other examples on the bilateral treaties and trade agreements can be found between the UAE and other countries such as: the Agreement between the Government of the Kingdom of Belgium and the Government of the United Arab Emirates for the purpose of establishing air services between and beyond their respective territories; the Agreement between the Kingdom of Belgium and the United Arab Emirates for the avoidance of double taxation and the prevention of fiscal evasion with respect to taxes on income and on capital; the Agreement with Belgium (on behalf of Belgium and Luxembourg in the name of the Belgo- Luxembourg Economic Union) on economic and technological co-operation; the Agreement between the Belgo-Luxemburg Economic Union, on the one hand, and the United Arab Emirates, on the other hand, on the reciprocal promotion and protection of investments; the Agreement in the field of economic, commercial, industrial, technological and financial cooperation; the Agreement with China for the promotion and protection of investments; the Agreement between the Republic of Finland and the United Arab Emirates for the avoidance of double taxation and the prevention of fiscal evasion with respect to taxes on income; the Convention on judicial assistance with the French Republic, recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters; the Amendment to the Convention between the Government of the French Republic and the Government of the United Arab Emirates for the avoidance of double taxation signed on 19 July 1989; and the Agreement between the Federal Republic of Germany and the United Arab Emirates for the promotion and reciprocal protection of investments.
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